. Use at least 10 sentences for each answer, but do not use more than 20 sentences for an answer.

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1. Explain how Plato argues that social justice is better than, and more important than, retributive
justice. Why can’t retributive justice, by itself, maintain peace and order in a society?

2. Describe how Socrates argues that people who want justice to control their lives would not want to
live in a democracy.

3. Explain why, according to The Republic, a democratic country will sooner or later be controlled by a
demagogue who wants to run the country like a tyranny.

4. Explain how Plato’s Allegory of the Cave suggests that only philosophy can rescue a person from being
controlled by one’s own culture and its customs.

5. Define what ‘dualism’ is. Then explain how Descartes proves that he knows for certain that he is a
thinking mind, with more certainty than he knows he has a body.

6. Describe how Descartes’s philosophy tries to show why religion should be able to accept the
knowledge that science learns about the natural world.

7. Explain whether this maxim is morally right according to Kant’s categorical imperative: “I should let
my friend help me cheat on this exam, so I can get a good grade in this class.”

8. Pick one human right. For that right, explain how Kant’s Categorical Imperative can show that this
human right is morally correct. Be sure to include an explanation why violating that right must be
morally wrong.

9. Describe why Utilitarianism’s formula, “What is morally right is what makes a society the happiest”
could be used for ranking societies from “most moral” to “least moral.” Then raise one objection to this
effort to rank societies this way, heard from anti-colonialism.

10. Describe how Appiah hopes to protect small cultures from assimilation into empires by promoting
multiculturalism and his “cosmopolitanism.”

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