Please find the content for the answers in chapters-6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14.
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. Salvador hates to work through the problems on his calculus assignments step-by-step, and he often tries shortcuts that might save him some time. It appears that Salvador prefers to use
a. algorithms rather than heuristics in solving calculus problems. b. functional fixedness in solving calculus problems. c. heuristics rather than algorithms in solving calculus problems. d. analogies in solving calculus problems.
____ 2. A conditioned stimulus is
a. a stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning. b. an unlearned reaction that occurs without previous conditioning. c. a previously neutral stimulus that, through conditioning, acquires the capacity to elicit a conditioned response. d. a learned reaction that occurs because of previous conditioning.
____ 3. Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for each three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a
a. fixed-ratio schedule. b. variable-ratio schedule. c. fixed-interval schedule. d. variable-interval schedule.
____ 4. The memory system that is described as a “giant storehouse that never quite fills up” is the
a. time-based memory. b. long-term memory. c. working memory. d. sensory memory.
____ 5. Josiah checks his electronic mail several times throughout the day. Some days there is mail each time he checks; sometimes several days go by with no new messages arriving. In this example, Josiah’s behavior of checking his electronic mail is being reinforced on
a. a variable-interval schedule. b. a fixed-ratio schedule. c. a fixed-interval schedule. d. a variable-ratio schedule.
____ 6. Cassie asked her father for a candy bar at the grocery store, and her father bought her the candy bar. If Cassie asks for more candy bars in the future, the candy bar has acted as
a. a discriminative stimulus. b. a reinforcer. c. a conditioned response. d. a conditioned stimulus.
____ 7. You are absorbed in reading your psychology text when the phone rings. After talking on the phone, you can’t remember the last thing you read. This information was lost from ____ memory, because the phone conversation distracted you from ____ the information.
a. sensory; perceiving b. short-term; rehearsing c. long-term; rehearsing d. long-term; retrieving
____ 8. If a child covers his/her ears when seeing fireworks, before hearing the sound of the fireworks, seeing the fireworks would be a(n)
a. unconditioned response b. unconditioned stimulus c. conditioned response d. conditioned stimulus
____ 9. Which of the following is NOT an example of a secondary reinforcer?
a. approval b. a toy for a child c. food d. money
____ 10. If you were attempting to recall a memory, the memory process you would be using is
a. encoding. b. storage. c. retrieval. d. acquisition.
____ 11. Ryan is hooked up to an electroencephalograph (EEG) in a sleep lab. As the researcher watches the printout from the EEG, sleep spindles begin to appear. Based on this information, the researcher can conclude that Ryan
a. is currently in REM sleep. b. has just entered Stage 2 sleep. c. has just entered Stage 1 sleep. d. is still awake, but is relaxed and drowsy.
____ 12. When Lisa was a child, she was bitten by a German Shepard dog. She came to associate German Shepard’s with pain. As an adult, Lisa is now afraid of all dogs. This example illustrates the classical conditioning process of
a. stimulus generalization. b. stimulus discrimination. c. preparedness. d. spontaneous recovery.
____ 13. A worker receives $1.00 for every two units he assembles. He is being paid on a ____ schedule.
a. fixed-ratio schedule b. variable-ratio schedule c. fixed-interval schedule d. variable-interval schedule
____ 14. Chimps are trained to perform a variety of tasks to get coins. The coins could then be traded in for banana chips which could be eaten. The coins served as a
a. primary reinforcer. b. negative reinforcer. c. secondary reinforcer. d. partial reinforcer.
____ 15. At this moment, as you are concentrating on answering this exam question correctly, your dominant brain wave pattern MOST likely consists of
a. alpha waves. b. beta waves. c. delta waves. d. theta waves.
____ 16. The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
a. gamma. b. beta. c. alpha. d. delta.
____ 17. Rebecca is hooked up to an electroencephalograph (EEG) in a sleep lab. As the researcher watches the printout from the EEG, delta waves appear. Based on this information, the researcher can conclude that Rebecca
a. has just entered Stage 1 sleep. b. is still awake, but is relaxed and drowsy. c. is currently in REM sleep. d. has just entered Stage 3 sleep.
____ 18. You are watching a rat pressing a lever in a Skinner box to obtain food pellets. The rat is pressing the lever at a very high rate, but it takes a break from lever pressing each time a food pellet is delivered. In this example, the reinforcement schedule that is in place is MOST likely
a. a fixed-interval schedule. b. a variable-ratio schedule. c. a variable-interval schedule. d. a fixed-ratio schedule.
____ 19. People generally fall asleep as their body temperature ____ and awaken as it ____.
a. becomes stable; starts to fluctuate b. starts to fluctuate; becomes stable c. begins to drop; begins to increase d. begins to increase; begins to drop
____ 20. Lance is trying to solve a complex anagram puzzle. He systematically tries every potential solution by testing each possible combination of the letters provided. In this case, Lance is
a. working backward to solve the anagram. b. using an algorithm to solve the anagram. c. using a heuristic to solve the anagram. d. using means-ends analysis to solve the anagram.
____ 21. A methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem is
a. an algorithm. b. an analogy. c. a heuristic. d. a style.
____ 22. For the past week Laura has had difficulty falling asleep at night. Even though she goes to bed at her usual time, she lays awake for several hours before she finally drifts off to sleep. It appears that Laura is experiencing
a. narcolepsy. b. sleep apnea. c. insomnia. d. night terrors.
____ 23. If selectively deprived of REM sleep, a person will later experience
a. hypochondriasis. b. emotionality. c. NREM. d. REM rebound.
____ 24. As Kayla was introduced to the seven members of the committee who would be interviewing her for a scholarship, she silently repeated all the names to herself, in order. Kayla was using
a. chunking to increase the capacity of her short-term memory. b. rehearsal to temporarily store the names in short-term memory. c. filtering to temporarily bloc other information out of short-term memory. d. acoustic encoding to process the names semantically.
____ 25. A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience is defined as
a. mediation. b. maturation. c. learning. d. conditioning.
____ 26. Assuming you have eaten sour pickles before, imagine eating a large, juicy sour pickle. If just thinking about the pickles causes your mouth to water, your salivation would be
a. a conditioned stimulus. b. a conditioned response. c. an unconditioned stimulus. d. an unconditioned response.
____ 27. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which
a. responses come to be controlled by their consequences. b. an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others’ behavior. c. an organism engages in a response that brings aversive stimulation to an end. d. a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response that was originally elicited by another stimulus.
____ 28. A worker gets paid every Friday for completing his 40 hour work week. He is being paid on a ____ schedule.
a. fixed-ratio b. variable-ratio c. fixed-interval d. variable-interval
____ 29. According to recent research, we are MOST likely to fall asleep
a. as our body temperature begins to drop. b. when it gets dark. c. when our body temperature stabilizes at normal. d. as our body temperature begins to climb.
____ 30. In terms of reinforcement schedules, interval schedules always relate to the
a. elapsed time between reinforcements. b. number of responses given. c. number of reinforcements given. d. length of the training period.
____ 31. Raul’s parents make certain they thank Raul every time he clears the dishes from the table without being asked. Sadie’s parents try to remember to thank Sadie every time she clears the table without being asked, but about half the time they forget. Based on principles of operant conditioning, you should predict that
a. both children’s table clearing will be equally resistant to extinction. b. Sadie’s table clearing will be more resistant to extinction than Raul’s. c. Raul’s table clearing will be more resistant to extinction than Sadie’s. d. Raul will develop stimulus generalization, and Sadie will develop stimulus discrimination.
____ 32. Veronica had been working at Zenex Industries for 8 months when her boss asked to see her in his office. She thought he wanted to talk about a promotion so she was quite excited, but instead of giving her a promotion, the boss told Veronica she was being laid off as a result of company downsizing. Veronica could feel her heart pounding as she listened to the news. Veronica was able to get a new job, but every time her new boss asks to talk to her in private, Veronica feels a little faint. In this example, the unconditioned response is
a. the bad news from her boss at Zenex Industries. b. her new boss asking for a private meeting. c. her pounding heart when she heard she was being laid off. d. the faintness she feels when her new boss wants to talk to her in private.
____ 33. Esmeralda wants to use her roommate’s computer to work on her term paper. However, the roommate has password protection on the computer’s boot sequence. Rather than starting at “a” and systematically testing every possible word in the English language, Esmeralda makes some educated guesses about the passwords, based on what she knows about her roommate. In this case, Esmeralda is using
a. a heuristic to get past the password protection. b. an algorithm to get past the password protection. c. reframing to get past the password protection. d. representativeness to get past the password protection.
____ 34. Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
a. closure. b. simplicity. c. proximity. d. similarity.
____ 35. The delta wave EEG pattern is associated with
a. dreaming. b. deep sleep. c. a waking state. d. none of these states.
____ 36. Carson used to really enjoy lime sherbet, and when he was in Mexico he tried frozen lime margaritas. After his fourth margarita Carson became extremely ill. Now he finds that even the sight of lime sherbet in a bowl can make him feel queasy. In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is
a. the lime margaritas that Carson consumed. b. the illness that followed the fourth margarita. c. the sight of lime sherbet. d. the queasiness that Carson feels when he sees lime sherbet.
____ 37. Holly was dancing with her new boyfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing “Can’t Help Falling in Love with You” her boyfriend gave her a long, passionate kiss, which Holly found very enjoyable. Now Holly finds that every time she hears “Can’t Help Falling in Love with You” on the radio, she becomes a little flushed. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is
a. the long, passionate kiss. b. the song, “Can’t Help Falling in Love with You.” c. the enjoyment she experienced after the kiss from her boyfriend. d. the flushing she experiences when she hears the song on the radio.
____ 38. “Manny got out of bed and began doing calisthenics during REM sleep, probably because he was dreaming about boot camp.” What is WRONG with this statement?
a. Sleep is a relaxed condition of the body and, as such, precludes physical activity. b. Research shows that no dreaming takes place in REM sleep. c. Research shows that we are virtually paralyzed in REM sleep. d. Manny was never in boot camp so he is not likely to be dreaming about it.
____ 39. You have a pair of pliers and a bag of nuts in the shell. You are lamenting the fact that you can’t shell the nuts because you do not have a nutcracker. Your inability to perceive the pliers as a makeshift nutcracker demonstrates ____ on your part.
a. functional fixedness b. mental set c. insight insufficiency d. heuristic reasoning
____ 40. While out trick-or-treating for Halloween, at first Billy’s neighbors had to remind him to say “trick or treat” before they dropped their treats into his bag. As he continued to visit houses in the neighborhood, soon Billy would say “trick or treat” as soon as the neighbors answered the door. The treats he received were the ____ for his saying “trick or treat”.
a. conditioned stimulus b. reinforcement c. reward d. discriminative stimulus
____ 41. When Quentin sprained his ankle in a backyard softball game, his girlfriend grabbed a bag of frozen corn from the freezer to wrap around his ankle until they got him to the local clinic. In this case, Quentin’s girlfriend
a. effectively utilized the availability heuristic. b. was able to overcome functional fixedness. c. demonstrated functional fixedness in treating Quentin’s sprained ankle. d. successfully utilized an elimination-by-aspects strategy.
____ 42. A 1-800 number for a product Ronald was interested in flashed on the television screen. Unfortunately the number disappeared before Ronald was able to write down the last three digits. However, Ronald found he had a momentary mental image of the phone number, and he was able to complete it, even though the number had disappeared. Ronald’s experience BEST illustrates
a. cued recall. b. sensory memory. c. procedural memory. d. a flashbulb memory.
____ 43. Charity used to really enjoy potato salad, and at a family reunion she ate a large helping. Unfortunately, the potato salad had not been kept cold, and Charity became quite ill after eating it. Now she finds that even the sight of potatoes in the grocery store can make her feel sick to her stomach. In this example, the sick feeling Charity experiences when she sees potatoes in the grocery store is
a. an unconditioned response. b. a conditioned response. c. an unconditioned stimulus. d. a conditioned stimulus.
____ 44. Zachariah was not sure that he was ready for his midterm exams, but once he started the exams, he found that he was able to accurately recall the information he had learned that related to each question. The main memory process that accounts for the fact that Zachariah could access and utilize the information in his memory is
a. encoding. b. storage. c. retrieval. d. rehearsal.
____ 45. Darrel was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing “Can’t Help Falling in Love with You” his girlfriend gave him a long passionate kiss, which Darrel found very enjoyable. Now Darrel finds that every time he hears “Can’t Help Falling in Love with You” on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example, the long, passionate kiss is
a. a conditioned stimulus. b. an unconditioned response. c. a conditioned response. d. an unconditioned stimulus.
____ 46. Hugh is studying for his geography test. He is in a hurry, so he focuses on the main points of the text and skips all of the examples that the authors provide to illustrate each main point. In this case, Hugh is using
a. an efficient study strategy, because examples often cause students to become confused about key issues. b. chunking to create fewer storage units, and this should aid his later recall of the information. c. deep processing, which should produce a very durable memory for the material. d. an ineffective study strategy and will probably not retain many of the main ideas that he reads.
____ 47. Pavlov found that meat powder placed on a dog’s tongue will make the dog salivate. In Pavlov’s terms, the meat powder is
a. an unconditioned stimulus. b. an unconditioned response. c. a conditioned stimulus. d. a conditioned response.
____ 48. The length of time it takes to fall asleep depends on an array of factors. These do NOT include
a. how long it has been since the person slept. b. where the person is in their circadian rhythm cycle. c. whether they live in an industrialized or non industrialized country. d. the amount of noise in the sleep environment.
____ 49. Which of the following is NOT a cognitive activity?
a. remembering something b. making a decision c. solving a problem d. blinking at something
____ 50. In order for a memory to be retrieved, it must first be
- a. ablated. b. modeled. c. stored. d. lesioned.
Part 2:Short essays.Make sure you answer all of the parts of each question.
1. List the five categories of Human Cognitive Performance and describe in detail the Cognitive strategies.
2. The Gestalt psychologists described several principles of how we organize perceptions into meaningful wholes. Define the principles and give an example of (a) proximity, (b) similarity, (c) continuation, and (d) closure.
3. What are the five taste sensations humans can experience and why are children more picky eaters than adults?
4. A sleep disorder is a condition that occurs within our sleep patterns. Insomnia, sleep apnea, and narcolepsy represent three types of sleep disorders. Give a brief description of all three conditions.
5. Describe the three stages of memory and if someone can’t remember something describe how each of these stages could contribute to the lapse of memory.
6.Define the following terms and provide an example of each: confabulation, motivated forgetting, anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia.
Bonus Question (worth 5 points) Punishment is very difficult to do because there are many rules you must follow.Describe the 5 rules of punishment we discussed in class and give an example of each for children and an employee.