​Rough Draft #1: Literature Review

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Purpose of a Literature Review

The literature review allows the researcher to show that he or she is familiar with what has already been published on a particular topic. The literature review serves as a starting point from which the researcher will go forward and design his or her own study and build on what has been done previously in the field.

Steps in creating your literature review

Step 1: Select a topic

Step 2: Locate 5 articles for your literature review

Step 3: Read and organize your articles

Step 4: Create a Thesis Statement

Step 5: Organize your literature thematically

Step 6: Write your Literature Review as if you have read most of the research in the field

Step 7: Things not to do in a literature review

Step 8: Things to do in a literature review

Step 9: Paraphrasing in a Literature Review

Step 10: Quoting in a Literature Review

Step 11: Reference Page in ASA Style Format

Step 12: Format for the Literature Review Assignment

Step 1: Select a Topic

Important:

Once you choose a topic that will be your topic for the entire semester.

You should not use a portion of a paper that you submitted for another class. Do not recycle an old paper, instead you should choose a new topic.

You must first begin by selecting a topic to study. Here are some examples of topics chosen by former students.

Factors that contribute to the success or failure of LGBT students on college campuses.

The effect of participation in high school athletics on academic performance and student behavior.

Representation of women and minorities on reality TV programs.

Adult children of alcoholics and life outcomes.

Juvenile rehabilitation programs and recidivism rates.

Lived experiences of homeless women in a day shelter.

Quality of public transportation and its relationship to neighborhood demographics.

The relationship between tattoos and risk-taking behavior.

First generation college student experiences and graduation rates.

Step 2: Locate Sources for your Literature Review

The second step is to find peer reviewed articles that have been published on your topic. Given the time constraints of this class, you will be asked to use 5 articles for your literature review published within the last 10-15 years.

How to Locate Peer Reviewed Scholarly Journal Articles

Library Searches

Go to the CSUN Home Page – www.csun.edu

Click “Library”

Click “Databases A-Z”

Click on one of the following search engines:

Sociological Abstracts (CSA)

Social Sciences Full Text (Wilson)

Other common search engines:

JSTOR this search engine is limited as it does not filter out articles that are not peer-reviewed.

How recent should the journal articles be?

The journal articles for this assignment should have been published within the last 10-15 years.

How do I know if the article is “peer reviewed”?

Different search engines often have a box that you can click for “Scholarly Peer Reviewed” journals which will filter out non-peer reviewed sources.

Watch Out! – Things that look like peer reviewed articles but are not

Occasionally there are academic style magazine articles that may slip through and come up during your search. Usually these articles are easy to identify because they have a “magazine appearance,” are short, lack an abstract, methodology, and findings sections.

Book Reviews of academic books are often published in peer review journals and are not filtered out when you click the “peer review” box. You can tell that it is a book review by clicking on the document title and scrolling down to “Document Type” where it will say “Book Review” instead of “Article.”

Dissertations and Thesis projects often come up on academic search engines, but they are not peer reviewed articles. You can tell that it is a dissertation or thesis by clicking on the document title and scrolling down to “Document Type” where it will say “Dissertation” or “Thesis” rather than “Article.”

Step 4: Create a Thesis Statement

This will not be a traditional thesis statement that puts forth an argument or opinion. Instead your thesis statement will be about your general perspective on the literature that you read.

The literature review should not contain your personal opinions on the topic you are studying. The thesis statement will be one or more sentences in your introductory paragraph.

Example of Thesis Statements:

The majority of research conducted on sexual harassment has examined its occurrence in the workplace.

The issue of domestic violence has been examined using both quantitative and qualitative approaches which have revealed similar results.

Research indicates that American teachers and educational psychologists place great importance on parental involvement.

A paradigm shift has occurred in family studies, which has broadened the definition of family to include gay and lesbian couples who are raising children.

Most studies that have been conducted on the relationship between tattoos and risk taking behavior have been done on men. These studies have largely ignored the growing number of women in U.S. society who are getting tattoos.

Step 5: Organize Your Literature Thematically

A literature review synthesizes the information in many articles by evaluating and organizing relevant themes.

Structure of Literature Review Based on Themes

Do not summarize your first article in paragraph one, your second article in paragraph two, your third article in paragraph three, etc. Remember your literature review is a synthesis of the different studies and should be thematically organized.

You should organize your paragraphs based on themes. Feel free to use subtitles if this helps you organize your themes. You should have one or more paragraphs under each theme. Below are examples of how to incorporate several studies under one theme.

Step 9: Paraphrasing in a Literature Review

For this assignment you will be using ASA (American Sociological Association) style format. I have summarized this style format below.

Paraphrasing is when you read someone else’s research and summarize it in your own words while at the same time giving the original author credit.

Paraphrasing is different from quoting someone, you are not re-writing what they said word for word and there is no need for quotation marks. Instead, at the end of a section or at the end of a paragraph you simply write the author’s name and the year in which the work was published. The page number is not necessary.

The best way to paraphrase is to read your articles and take basic notes. After reading over your notes a few times, step away and imagine that you have to explain to a friend what you just read. It would be next to impossible without your notes or the original articles to copy word for word the sentences of the original author. This is the process you should use when paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism.

When paraphrasing a source be sure to represent the author’s information or opinions accurately in your own words.

How to Cite when you are Paraphrasing

Option 1: You can indicate the name of the author/authors and year in your sentence.

Several studies conducted in different states across the U.S. have looked at the effects of juvenile boot camps on recidivism rates. For example, Smith (2012) found that boys between the ages of 14-17 who went through a juvenile boot camp program did not have lower recidivism rates than boys who did not go through the program. However, a study conducted by Brown and Johnson (2015) found that when boot camp programs included psychological counseling programs, they were successful at lowering recidivism rates….

Option 2: You can indicate the name of the author/authors and year at the end of your sentence.

Several studies conducted in different states across the U.S. have looked at the effects of juvenile boot camps on recidivism rates (Smith 2012; Brown and Johnson 2015; Jacobs et al 2013). In a study conducted at a boot camp in California, researchers found that boys between the ages of 14-17 who went through a juvenile boot camp program did not have lower recidivism rates than boys who did not go through the program (Smith 2012). However another study conducted in the state of Virginia found that when boot camp programs included psychological counseling programs, they were successful at lowering recidivism rates (Brown and Johnson 2015)…..

Option 3: You can use a mix of both citation methods.

Several studies conducted in different states across the U.S. have looked at the effects of juvenile boot camps on recidivism rates (Smith 2012; Brown and Johnson 2015; Jacobs et al 2013). For example, Smith (2012) found that boys between the ages of 14-17 who went through a juvenile boot camp program did not have lower recidivism rates than boys who did not go through the program. However a study conducted by Brown and Johnson (2015) found that when boot camp programs……

In Text Citations in ASA Style Format

Article with One Author:

Option 1: Smith (2012) found that boys between the ages of 14-17 who went through a juvenile boot camp program did not have lower recidivism rates than boys who did not go through the program.

Option 2: Researchers found that boys between the ages of 14-17 who went through a juvenile boot camp program did not have lower recidivism rates than boys who did not go through the program (Smith 2012).

Article with Two Authors:

Option 1: However, in a study conducted by Brown and Johnson (2015) when boot camp programs included psychological counseling programs, they were successful at lowering recidivism rates.

Option 2: However another study conducted by in the state of Virginia found that when boot camp programs included psychological counseling programs, they were successful at lowering recidivism rates (Brown and Johnson 2015).

Article with Three Authors:

The first time you cite the article with three authors you need to put all of the last names of the authors. Every time thereafter you use “et al.” which is a Latin abbreviation for “et alii/alia” which means “others.”

First time the citation appears:

Jacobs, Maddon, and Goldwin (2013) used a two group post-test design to measure the extent to which the Second Chance Youth Program lowered recidivism rates among participants.

Every time the citation appears thereafter use “et al.”:

Jacobs et al. (2013) found that teens who received support from trained counselors had lower recidivism rates than teens who went through programs that did not have a counseling component.

Article with Four or More Authors

For articles with four or more authors, you should always use the “et al.” For example, for the article below which has five authors, you would always cite it in the text as: Chen et al (2009).

Chen, Juan, Gilbert Gee, Michael Spencer, Sheldon Danziger, and David Takeuchi. 2009.“Perceived social standing among Asian immigrants in the US: Do reasons for immigration matter?” Social Science Research 38(4): 858-869.

Citing Multiple Articles at Once

Follow the rules above, but simply add a semi-colon in between each article citation.

Example: Several studies conducted in different states across the U.S. have looked at the effects of juvenile boot camps on recidivism rates (Smith 2012; Brown and Johnson 2015; Jacobs et al 2013).

Step 10: Quoting a Literature Review

Limits on Using Quotes in your Literature Review

Direct quotes should be used sparingly in a literature review!

For this assignment you are limited to using no more than 2 quotes.

Each quote should be no more than two lines long. Do not use block quotes.

How to Cite when you are Quoting

The same rules apply as described above for paraphrasing, except the phrase that is taken directly from the author must be put in quotes and be followed by (Author Year: Page Number).

Example:

The analysis concluded that “residents who went through the boot camp program with the counseling component were less likely to recidivate than residents who went through the boot camp program alone” (Brown and Johnson 2015: 43).

Note: The quotation mark goes at the beginning and end of the quoted text, however the period goes outside of the parentheses after the (Author Year: Page Number).

Step 11: Reference Page in ASA Style Format

The reference list should appear on a separate page at the end of the literature review.

All references cited in the text must be listed in the reference section and vice-versa.

List references in alphabetical order

Use hanging indention (see examples on next page)

Invert authors’ name; if there are two or more authors, invert only the first author’s name.

Put the title of the article in quotes.

Put the name of the journal in italics.

After the title of the journal indicate the volume, issue number and pages. If there is only a volume (no number), just indicate the volume: page numbers

Do not list a link or the website you obtained the article from.

Example:

Chen, Juan, Gilbert Gee, Michael Spencer, Sheldon Danziger, and David Takeuchi. 2009.“Perceived social standing among Asian immigrants in the US: Do reasons for immigration matter?” Social Science Research 38(4): 858-869.

Flores, Rene and Edward Telles. 2012. “Social Stratification in Mexico: Disentangling Color, Ethnicity, and Class.”American Sociological Review 77(3): 486-494.

Ryo, Emily. 2013. “Deciding to Cross: Norms and Economics of Unauthorized Migration.American Sociological Review 78(4): 574-603.

Vesselinov, Elena. 2008. “Members Only: Gated Communities and Residential Segregation in the Metropolitan United States.” Sociological Forum 23(3): 536-555.

How to do hanging indention

Method :

1. Type up your citation as seen below with no tabs or indentation:

Garcia, Alma M. 1998. “An Intellectual Odyssey: Chicana/Chicano Studies Moving into the Twenty-first Century.” Journal of American Ethnic History 18(4): 109-112.

2. In Word 2007 – Highlight your citation, then click “Paragraph”, then under “Special”, click the drop-down menu click “Hanging”

Step 12: Format for the Literature Review Assignment

1 inch margins

12pt Times New Roman font

Double spacing for the literature review

1.0 spacing for the reference page. There should be one space in between each source (as shown on previous page).

Check spelling and grammar

Write clearly – if what you write doesn’t make sense to you, it won’t make sense to me.

Upload one Word Document to Canvas

Title Page (should have your name and topic) – 1 page

Literature ReviewApproximately 3-4 pages

Introduction: The first paragraph which includes your thesis statement and a general overview of your topic.

(Body): These are your subsequent paragraphs which contain your discussion of sourcesand is organized thematically.

Conclusion: This is your last paragraph which discusses what you have drawn from reviewing the literature so far.It also includes 1-2 sentences about where future research on the topic might proceed.

Reference Page – 1 page with your five articles

Total Length: Approximately 5-6 pages (including the cover page and the reference page).

How to save Pages File as Word document from a Mac

http://osxdaily.com/2014/08/06/save-pages-file-as-…

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