please try to ensure use of reviewed journal articles, not references from websites. 160 words minimum APA format
What are Haitians’ views of homosexuality?
Homosexuality in the Haitian community is banned by their religion. In the Haitian culture, people in the community fear coming out as homosexual because they are afraid of the repercussions and discrimination they will face. In Haiti, there is no law criminalizing consensual same-sex sexual acts, but Article 227 of its criminal code prohibits vagrancy, with a specific mention in the code to transgender people (Malta et al, 2019). When family members have taken initiative to come out as homosexual to family members, the member may be in denial. About half of the Haitian community in Haiti are of the Christian religion, and there is a sturdy sense of shame and disgrace in relation to homosexuals and HIV infections. In addition, Haitians view of homosexuals is unethical and distasteful conduct because of the culture, beliefs, and religious views. The Haitian constitution in 1987 strictly forbid discrimination on sexual orientation, but in 2017, the Haitian Senate changed legal aspects and banned same sex marriages. Since then, same-sex orientation is not tolerated in Haiti and religion plays a big part in decision making of the Senate and heterosexual population in the community.
If Ronald’s parents were to learn of his positive HIV status, how might they react if they are religious and traditional?
If Ronald’s parents were to learn of his positive HIV status, and they were religious and traditional, their reaction might be unsupportive, in denial, and disappointment. Due to highly conservative Christian religious influences on the society, coping with HIV and sexual stigma is challenging for men who have sex with men and women (Dévieux et al., 2022). The Christian religion believes that marriage should be between a man and a woman, and that one should abstain from sexual intercouse until marriage. Therefore, due to the traditions and religious beliefs in the Haitian culture, Ronald’s parents would not be supportive of a positive HIV diagnosis or their son’s choice of sexual orientation. In the past, Haitian churches considered HIV/AIDS to be caused by a curse that God placed on sinners. Ronald’s parents may feel that this was a curse placed on him for not living life according to the honorable provisions of their religion. Their astonishment may lead to rejection and stigmatizing of their son due to the unpleasant choices he has made.
Identify three major culturally congruent strategies a healthcare provider can implement to address HIV prevention practices in the Haitian community?
The first HIV prevention strategy that healthcare providers in Haiti can use to speak of the virus is individual and family-level interventions. Since homosexuality is taboo in the Haitian culture, gay and lesbian individuals remain closeted, and family members make it a point to keep this information quiet. Therefore, individuals avoid seeking testing and treatment for HIV infection. Unfortunately, due to the stigma in Haiti among people living with HIV, only two-thirds knew their HIV status and just 58% were receiving treatment (Delcher et al., 2020). Advanced Practice Nurses (APRN’s) can organize an educational session with the individual and family regarding ways to prevent HIV and stigmatizations. Although nurses must always respect a patient’s wishes and choices, it is important to teach them why it is so crucial to have testing done. It also useful to explain to them the benefits of sharing the status of their orientation and medical condition with family, to control the spread of the disease. This individual and family level intervention strategy can be applied when the Haitian culture is understood.
The second HIV prevention strategy is organizational level intervention. Within the Haitian community, an organization of HIV prevention agencies can be built, where members can be properly trained on the risks associated with HIV and the ways it can be transmitted. These prevention methods are great ways to minimize the transmission of the disease to various individuals. This type of prevention intervention strategy can be useful in education of the disease with pamphlets, translation services for the Haitian population that speaks other languages and can work as a team with other social establishments like churches, schools, and social media outlets regarding HIV preventions.
The final approach HIV prevention strategy is community-level intervention. The community-level intervention incorporates a whole community in preventative measures of contracting HIV. The focus of these community-based projects is primarily on changing individuals’ behaviors as a method for reducing the population’s risk of disease. The APN can assist by involving multiple members of the community to help them recognize and comprehend risks associated with the transmission of HIV. These members will be able to spread the message along to others within the community and make it a domino effect. Counting on the participation of the community members in the crusade in contradiction of HIV is necessary to continue to decrease its spread
Delcher, C., Robin, E. G., & Pierre, D. M. (2020). Haiti’s HIV Surveillance System: Past, Present, and Future. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 103(4), 1372–1375. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0004
Dévieux, J. G., Vertovec, J., Jean-Gilles, M., Rosenberg, R., René, C., Cyrus, E., Jean, S. E., & Dunbar, W. (2022). Patterns of sexual and HIV-related stigma among men who have sex with men and women living with HIV in Haiti. Scientific reports, 12(1), 7511. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-11647-1
Malta, M., Cardoso, R., Montenegro, L., de Jesus, J. G., Seixas, M., Benevides, B., das Dores Silva, M., LeGrand, S., & Whetten, K. (2019). Sexual and gender minorities rights in Latin America and the Caribbean: a multi-country evaluation. BMC international health and human rights, 19(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12914-019-0217-3