Nrnp 6645 – discussion week 1

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**THIS DISCUSSION IS DIVIDE IN TWO PARTS –

1. MAIN DISCUSSION POST BY WEDNESDAY 6/1/2022 BEFORE 8:00 PM EST

2. TWO REPLIES BY FRIDAY 06/03/2022 BEFORE 8:00 PM EST

Discussion: Biological Basis and Ethical/Legal Considerations of Psychotherapy

Many studies have found that psychotherapy is as effective as psychopharmacology in terms of influencing changes in behaviors, symptoms of anxiety, and changes in mental state. Changes influenced by psychopharmacology can be explained by the biological basis of treatments. But how does psychotherapy achieve these changes? Does psychotherapy share common neuronal pathways with psychopharmacology?

Psychotherapy is used with individuals as well as in groups or families. The idea of discussing confidential information with a patient in front of an audience is probably quite foreign to you. However, in group and family therapy, this is precisely what the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner does. In your role, learning how to provide this type of therapy within the limits of confidentiality is essential.

By Day 3


DISCUSSION – INSTRUCTIONS

1. Post an explanation of whether psychotherapy has a biological basis.

2. Explain how culture, religion, and socioeconomics might influence one’s perspective on the value of psychotherapy treatments.

3. Describe how legal and ethical considerations for group and family therapy differ from those for individual therapy, and explain how these differences might impact your therapeutic approaches for clients in group, individual, and family therapy.

4. Support your rationale with at least three peer-reviewed, evidence-based sources and explain why each of your supporting sources is considered scholarly.

5. Attach the PDFs of your sources. 


Instructions:

Respond to your colleague by providing an additional scholarly resource that supports or challenges their position, along with a brief explanation of the resource. 

**minimum of three (3) scholarly references are required for each reply cited within the body of the reply & at the end**

Reply # 1

Donna Gatto 

RE: Week 1 Discussion- Gatto

Evaluate whether psychotherapy treatments have a biological basis

 

Psychotherapy has a biological basis. The operations of the brain are purely biological, and psychotherapy addresses the brain in the way it develops, matures, and operates. Psychotherapy deactivates maladaptive brain mappings and fosters new and constructive pathways (Chu et al, 2016).

The main types of psychotherapies include psychodynamic, behavioral, and cognitive therapy.

· Psychodynamic psychotherapy addresses the expectations regarding self and other individuals, as well as their connection to behavior, affect, and the neuropsychological factors behind these interpersonal representations. The brain regions involved during psychodynamic psychotherapy include subcortical regions and cerebral hemispheres (Plakun, 2015).

· Behavioral psychotherapy addresses the dysfunction in memory, learning and the associated motor behavior. The brain structures involved in behavioral psychotherapy include the hippocampus, amygdala, as well as basal ganglia (Plakun,2015).

· Cognitive psychotherapy addresses the patterns involved in information processing as well as thinking patterns in mental disorder. Cognitive psychotherapy tackles the defective cognitions that contribute to the development of the patient’s psychopathological state and examines and alter defective thinking patterns. Neocortex is the brain structures involved in cognitive psychotherapy, particularly the frontal cortex (Plakun, 2015)

Analyze influences of culture, religion, and socioeconomics on personal perspectives of psychotherapy treatments

 

· Culture has also been identified to form the models of psychotherapy and psychiatric care and tend to have an impact on individuals’ understanding of their suffering (Chu, Leino, Pflum, & Sue, 2016). Culture also tends to establish the credibility or acceptance of types of psychotherapy treatments in the perception of the clients, their families and contributes to the adherence to the psychotherapy treatments (Captari et al, 2018).

· Religious beliefs and values are used by individuals to process information and make judgements (Schwarz, 2018). A psychotherapist can boost the capability of their clients to understand unanticipated life events by confirming the beliefs and perspective learnings of their clients (Schwarz, 2018). Knowing and validating client’s belief system improves adherence to psychotherapy and supports to accomplish better results (Captari, et al., 2018).

· Socioeconomics correlates personality characteristics and tends to have an impact on individuals’ overall quality of life. It has been identified that individuals from a lower socioeconomic background have a higher tendency of dropping out of the therapy, as they perceive psychotherapy as less effective (Levi, Laslo-Roth, & Rosenstreich, 2018).

Compare legal and ethical considerations among individual, family, and group modalities of therapy 

 

An ethical implication in both individual and group therapy is informed consent. Informed consent allows the client /clients to have enough information regarding the services provided within the therapeutic environment so that they can decide whether they will participate.

 

It is the responsibility of the counselor to respect the basic rights of all members. Counselors must discuss informed consent, including the risks and benefits of group work. It is important for the counselor to stress the importance of confidentiality within the group. A counselor cannot prevent a group member from speaking regarding their personal lives, however a counselor must stress the importance of maintaining confidentiality as a way of demonstrating respect for protecting the disclosures of others in the group (Captari et al., 2018).

 

References

 

Captari, L. E., Hook, J. N., Hoyt, W., Davis, D. E., McElroyHeltzel, S. E., & Worthington Jr, E. L. (2018). Integrating client’s religion and spirituality within psychotherapy: A comprehensive metaanalysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74(11), 1938-1951. doi:10.1002/jclp.22681

 

Chu, J., Leino, A., Pflum, S., & Sue, S. (2016). A model for the theoretical basis of cultural competency to guide psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 47(1), 18. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pro/47/1/18.html?uid=2016-05588-002

Levi, U., Laslo-Roth, R., & Rosenstreich, E. (2018). Socioeconomic Status and Psychotherapy: A Cognitive-Affective View. Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health Forecast, 1(2), 1008. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328238564_Socioeconomic_Status_and_Psychotherapy_A_Cognitive-Affective_View

Plakun, E. M. (2015). Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment: Recent advances and future directions. Psychiatric Clinics, 38(3), 405-418.


Instructions:

Respond to your colleague by providing an additional scholarly resource that supports or challenges their position, along with a brief explanation of the resource. 

**minimum of three (3) scholarly references are required for each reply cited within the body of the reply & at the end**

Reply # 1

kandiss messer 

bias in psychotherapy/legality Attachment

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According to Dr Bambling (2013), genes/behavior are heavily influenced by social environments. If a patient lives in a household where there is a stigma attached to psychotherapy, the client is less likely to be receptive or introduced into therapy. Min (2019) reports older African Americans are less likely to accept pharmacotherapy/psychotherapy due to the presumed embarrassing stigma. Legal and ethical differences associated with family therapy have more gray areas than individual therapy. When psychotherapy is with one individual, it is the responsibility of the therapist to maintain confidentiality unless the person is in danger of harming themselves or others. If therapy is with a group/family, however, the therapist must notify each person of their confidentiality between family member unless there is a written waiver for another arrangement (Nicholas & Davis, 2020). The therapist must know any bias they have towards any type of person or action. Otherwise, therapy will not be effective and can appear to be one sided. Wheeler (2020) states that the nurse must have acquired a knowledge about themselves in order to understand others.  If you the therapist is divorced because her husband cheated, she may not be the best therapist to treat a couple in marriage counseling because the husband cheated. In this case the therapist should give out a referral, never leaving the client without a path towards healing.

 

Min is scholarly because it is written to add to the knowledge base on psychotherapy barriers with older African Americans. Nichols and Davis are scholarly because it is written by because it is written by academics and professional that are offering knowledge from different sources and experiences to better students looking to practice psychotherapy. Wheeler provides tables/articles to educate, and she is an expert in her field.

 

Bambling, M. (2013). Neurobiology of behavior change Mental Health Academy. https://video.alexanderstreet.com/watch/neurobiology-of-behavior-change.

Min, J. W. (2019). The Influence of Stigma and Views on Mental Health Treatment Effectiveness on Service Use by Age and Ethnicity: Evidence From the CDC BRFSS 2007, 2009, and 2012. SAGE Open. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019876277

Nichols, M., & Davis, S. D. (2020). The essentials of family therapy (7th ed.). Pearson.

 

Wheeler, K. (Ed.). (2020). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (3rd ed.). Springer Publishing.

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