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Module 06 Content

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Collect the knowledge you gathered in this course and prepare a 10+ slide PowerPoint presentation as if you were presenting to your workgroup. Make sure you touch on a topic from each week and describe what things you would like to immediately implement. Your presentation should be APA formatted if outside research is cited and free from grammatical errors.

Gather your research from at least 2 sources, other than your textbook. Cite your sources using APA guidelines. All submitted work should be free of grammatical errors.

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Running head: BENEFITS

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Benefits

Marion Allen

Deborah Ryan

Healthcare Operations Management

August 6th, 2022


Top of Form

FMLA versus EEOC

Preventing discrimination based on religion, sex, race, sexual orientation, nationality, ethnicity, etc., is among the top priorities in the U.S. today. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) refers to a federal government agency entrusted with promoting fairness by preventing and outlawing any discrimination in the workplace. It enforces ADA and Title VII (Bordelon, 2022). The laws outlined by the EEOC enfold all kinds of discrimination, including gender, race, age, sexual orientation, and disability. Businesses with at least 15 full-time employees are required to comply with these laws. Besides, organizations with at least 100 employees must file EEO-1 annually, also known as the Employer Information Report. The main goal of the EEOC is to design employment practice policies and to communicate all of these policies to employees (Bordelon, 2022). Based on the EEOC rules, companies must prevent discrimination and harassment, make reasonable accommodations for their employees’ disabilities or religious beliefs, and avoid retaliating against workers who file complaints (Mulloy, 2020). Under ADA, an employee is required to return to the same job unless the employer can prove that leaving the job position vacant would generate undue hardship. In some cases, the employee may wish to extend their leave even after an employer communicates that he cannot keep the vacant position further. Thus, the employer must find an alternative job position for the employee. However, if there is no alternative position, even at a lower level, continued accommodation from the employer is not required.

On the other hand, the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) protects the right of an employee to take leave to deal with family or medical emergencies (Gitis & Sprick, 2022). This includes attending to their serious medical condition, taking care of a family member with a severe health condition, or taking some time off after the birth or adoption of a child. The FMLA covers private employers who have at least 50 employees. The FMLA states that an employee who is covered can take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave within 12 months. During this period, the employee’s job status is protected, and his health benefits are maintained. Generally, the main aim of FMLA is to provide an employee with a reasonable but limited amount of time to take care of their own or a family member’s health condition without losing their job since the employer must take the employee back into the same or an equivalent position.

EEOC and FMLA have some similarities and differences in terms of leave policy. To begin with, Title VII and ADA cover only private employers with 15 or more employees, whereas FMLA covers private employers with 50 or more employees. However, local and state government employers are covered by both FMLA and ADA despite the number of employees but are covered by Title VII if they have at least 15 employees. It is important to note that not all employees protected by Title VII are eligible for FMLA leave, which depends on various factors such as length of stay and employment by an FMLA-covered employer with more than 50 employees.

Under FMLA, a severe health condition refers to an impairment, illness, or mental or physical condition involving inpatient care or continuous treatment by a healthcare provider. It is not necessarily considered an ADA disability. An ADA disability is an impairment that significantly reduces at least one significant life activity. Generally, under ADA, a person must have a record of an extremely limiting impairment to get covered because having a serious health condition may not suffice. To prove if a person has an ADA disability, all evidence, including all records (medical certifications and recertifications) about whether they have a severe medical condition, should be considered.

Both FMLA and EEOC have law requirements about the leave policy for pregnancy and related conditions (Eaton, 2019). Under EEOC’s laws, if an employer offers short-term disability leave, they must treat the pregnancy and associated conditions like non-pregnancy. For instance, if an employer provides seven weeks for short-term medical conditions, he must also offer seven weeks of paid leave for pregnancy and other related conditions. Pregnant employees must also be allowed to work as long as they can adequately deliver on their assigned tasks. Besides, employees are required to hold a job for a pregnancy-associated absence for the same period that other positions are held open for employees on disability or sick leave.

There are incidences where the leave policy which complies with FMLA can violate the laws administered by EEOC. The EEOC anti-discriminatory laws protect employees regardless of the period they have worked. Still, an employee cannot be covered by FMLA leave until they have been employed for 12 months. Therefore, an event where an employer policy that denied a pregnancy leave during the employee’s first year but provided an exit for other health conditions would discriminate against pregnant women in violation of EEOC. Also, a policy that denies employees from taking temporary disability or sick leave in their first year of employment would hurt women and violate EEOC.

Another difference is that under EEOC, employers are not mandated to offer employees leave to take care of themselves or family members but are prohibited against discriminatory practices based on religion, race, color, sex, or nationality when they provide family leave. Under ADA, employers are also required to offer to go on the same terms as they would give other employees who need to take care of an ill patient.

References

Bordelon, R. (2022). Whose Benefits Are They?

Eaton, B. L. (2019). Pregnancy discrimination: Pregnant women need more protection in the workplace. SDL Rev.64, 244.

Gitis, B., & Sprick, E. (2022). Modernizing FMLA: Reform Options to Expand Employee Coverage and Reduce Employer Burdens. Bottom of Form

Mulloy, S. P. (2020). Accommodating absence: Medical leave as an ADA reasonable accommodation. Michigan Law Review118(8), 1629-1654.

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Credentialing Healthcare Providers

Marion Allen

Rasmussen College

Healthcare Operations Management

Deborah Ryan

07.31.22

Credentialing Healthcare Providers

Credentialing is integral to the provision of quality health care services. Healthcare organizations operating in modern clinical practice must promote patient safety and provide care within recommended standards. Although adequate staffing is essential to organizational success, healthcare organizations must comply with the profession’s laws that govern the minimum credentials and requirements to authenticate healthcare providers’ abilities and skills. Credentialing is the formal process that scrutinizes healthcare providers’ ability to practice medicine and provide the highest level of care based on established guidelines (Patel and Sharma, 2020). Patients are entitled to access and receive quality healthcare from qualified and competent healthcare providers. Credentialing ensures that healthcare providers meet the qualifications, licensure, training, and abilities required in clinical practice. Credentialing process is standard across similar specialties. Research indicates that healthcare providers provide care with fake certificates and experience (Rubin, 2022). Such cases increase the need to be vigilant to ensure only qualified healthcare providers practice medicine.

Various accredited bodies, such as the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), have established a series of standards that guide the process of credentialing healthcare providers. One primary requirement of NCQA is to verify healthcare providers’ academic qualifications by ensuring they provide original copies of their certificate, diploma, and degree in the field. According to Patel and Sharma (2020), verification of credentials is conducted by various agencies such as the American Association of Nurse practitioners (AANP, American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), and National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB). AANP verifies nurses’ credentials to ensure they are certified by the nursing board. ABMS represents 24 medicine disciplines and evaluates the American physicians’ credentials to ensure they are board certified. The agency certifies over medical specialties. NPDB is an American government program that gathers providers’ data and allows its access by authorized users. Data collected include license suspension and revocation, malpractice cases, awards, and negative complaints.

Internal and external departments conduct credentialing of healthcare providers following a systematic process. Firstly, the departments obtain healthcare providers’ data and documents from various sources (McMullen and Howie, 2020). This data includes healthcare providers’ education, license, work history, National Provider Identification (NIP) number, liability coverage, board certifications, eligibility for state regulatory requirements, and fellowships. The credentialing department should focus on documenting the evidence of the provider’s minimum credentials, including education background. The education background entails the formal qualifications required for registration by the national board and information about recognized postgraduate awards and certificates demonstrating the providers’ completion of training from a recognized training institution. For a graduate practitioner, education information includes the competencies and learning objectives of attended training programs and supervised units from the training institution. Secondly, the credentialing department verifies the healthcare provider’s information. The credentialing department liaises with licensing agencies and other entities to verify the obtained data. In the digital era, credentialing software continuously checks the provider’s information availed by empowering agencies and other entities. Most healthcare organizations collaborate with management platforms to automatically update and record providers’ information. Data verification also includes monitoring providers’ malpractice complaints and medical incidents that could affect their clinical practice. Lastly, the credentialing department awards the healthcare provider the credentials, including clinical privileges and the ability to practice onsite. Onsite visit during credentialing is vital for healthcare providers unrolled under Medicare. These onsite visits verify the provider’s existence and compliance with the set requirements regarding providing healthcare services to Medicare beneficiaries. Additionally, all healthcare providers are eligible to have an NPI (Reed, 2020). NPI identifies care providers to their healthcare partners.

Every licensed healthcare practicing independently and legalized by law and a licensing organization to provide healthcare services without direction within the scope of their license requires credentialing. Although every state varies in its medical practice laws, healthcare providers can only perform the services for which they have received the clinical privileges (McMullen and Howie, 2020). Credentialed specialties include physicians, optometrists, podiatrists, ophthalmologists, and nurses. Credentialing is not only for healthcare providers but also for healthcare facilities. Healthcare institutions are required to maintain standards of care and competence. Examples of facilities that need credentialing include dialysis, hospice care, IV home infusion therapy, ambulances, and lithotripsy.

References

McMullen, P. C., & Howie, W. O. (2020). Credentialing and privileging: A primer for nurse practitioners. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners16(2), 91-95.

Patel, R., & Sharma, S. (2020). Credentialing. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.

Reed, S. M. (2020). National Provider Identifier: Why Every Clinical Nurse Specialist Needs One. Clinical Nurse Specialist34(5), 231-233.

Rubin, R. (2022). When physicians spread unscientific information about COVID-19. Jama327(10), 904-906.

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Supply Chain Management

Marion Allen

Rasmussen College

Healthcare Operations Management

Deborah Ryan

7.22.22


Executive Summary

Significant of stocking

Efficient inventory management is vital for a healthcare organization’s effective running. Medical inventory management in hospitals entails the direction of stock used. It covers high and low-value items like a syringe and costly implants and surgical kits (Ahmadi et al., 2019). High-value consumables usually comprise a sizeable chunk of a healthcare facility‘s budget. Therefore, tracking and timely stocking are significant for ensuring efficient service delivery.
Furthermore, due to the controversiality of patient healthcare, health inventory ought to be available on demand. Efficient stocking ensures a critical medical list is available when needed (Ahmadi et al., 2019). As such, the facility needs to know precisely the present stock levels, including the location at a specific time.

While gaining a detailed overview of the healthcare inventory is not that simple, the hospital must ensure that they have sufficient stock. Poor stocking compromises efficient service delivery and can put the facility in a precarious situation (Fragapane et al., 2019). Visible data must accompany stock to necessitate easier accessibility of the needed inventory. Stocking will help the facility enhance the quality of care by reducing unnecessary costs and saving on time. In Dr. Smith’s scenario, timely stocking would have helped avert the inconveniences caused due to the unavailability of aesthetics.

Importance of placing timely orders

Inventory management in healthcare facilities means the facilities must ensure adequate inventory to meet clients’ needs (Ahmadi et al., 2019). Moreover, in practice, the uncertain nature of hospital operating rooms implies that it is impracticable to foresee every need. Healthcare facilities never know who will walk through their door and what medical conditions they may require. Even in the case of planned surgeries, all decision-making processes are made in real-time. This means that specific or any extra inventory requests can be made instantly (Fragapane et al., 2019). Some recommendations may need a transfer from outside the division or directly from the suppliers. These items are most vulnerable to remaining untracked in the healthcare facilities management system. Therefore, healthcare facilities need to place timely deliveries to avert any inconveniences.

Placing timely orders ensure that the entire inventory required for surgical procedures and emergency cases can be accessed when needed. By placing timely orders, the hospital improves order accuracy and turnaround time. Untimely order requests can lead to a patient receiving the wrong medication leading to undesirable health outcomes and potential malpractice charges.

A step-by-step method to avoid the situation in Dr. Smith’s Office

The hospital can avert the scenario witnessed in DR. Smith’s situation by prioritizing an efficient inventory management process. Firstly, the facility must ensure that all the essential items are made available on time and have a back plan to cushion itself against unforeseen situations. The next step is to ensure that products are inspected, sorted, and stored. Reviewing and sorting products ensures that no essential product is missing, and the location of their storage warrants easy accessibility when the item is required (Mandel & Granin, 2018). The hospital must then ensure that inventory levels are monitored. This entails stock taking, inventory cycle count, or perpetual inventory software. By doing so, the hospital will ensure that it does not run out of stock (Mandel & Granin, 2018). The next step entails ensuring that inventory levels are up to date to avoid understocking, which can be supported by reorder points for essential medical items. When the hospital follows this procedure to the latter, the inconveniences triggered by understocking in the hospital will be avoided.

References

Ahmadi, E., Masel, D. T., Metcalf, A. Y., & Schuller, K. (2019). A literature review reviews inventory management of surgical supplies and sterile instruments in hospitals. Health Systems8(2), 134-151.

Fragapane, G. I., Zhang, C., Sgarbossa, F., & Strandhagen, J. O. (2019). An agent-based simulation approach to model hospital logistics. International Journal of Simulation Modelling18(4), 654-665.

Mandel, A., & Granin, S. (2018, August). Optimization of Inventory Management Process. In 2018 8th International Conference on Logistics, Informatics and Service Sciences (LISS) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

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2


Performance Policy

Marion Allen

Rasmussen University

Healthcare Operations Management 

Deborah Ryan

07.15.2022

Performance Policy

The distribution of the benefits that come with the success of an organization or firm among all the employees whose work lives up to or surpasses the criteria established for them is often the purpose of a performance bonus program. Because of this, it is usually designed to serve the objective of motivating the individual employees to carry on performing the excellent work that they have been doing up to this point.

Betamatt Inc. is a transnational corporation that maintains its principal administrative operations in Seattle and Washington, DC metropolitan regions. The retail selling of electronic goods is the primary emphasis of the company’s operations, and the business maintains several locations around the United States where it may be found. The decrease in the number of units that have been sold has had a direct impact on the overall revenue from sales that the firm has been experiencing, which has shown signs of following a downward trend. In this regard, the department of human resources has developed the framework for a policy that will serve as a guide for awarding bonuses to workers based on their performance of those individuals. This policy aims to incentivize workers to improve their performance, which will, in turn, contribute to an improvement in performance that can be assessed at the level of the whole organization.

The current policy, assigned the number 005SLS, is the fifth of the policies formed to elevate the overall revenue from sales. The entire income from sales is what we want to accomplish with these new guidelines. The new regulation will become mandatory starting with the fiscal year 2020–2021, scheduled in October. It is expected that the law will begin to be put into effect on the first of June in the year 2020 and that it will stay in force until the 31st of May in the following year. Every month, we will investigate which benefits and privileges provide the most value to our clients. After that, these advantages will be accumulated, and after the calendar year, they will be handed up to the relevant individuals and organizations.

Extensive consultations were held between the department of human resources and the company workers to finalize the writing of this policy, which resulted from their discussions. The purpose of the one-time payments that are paid at the end of the year is to encourage staff members to continue to be dedicated to the organization’s aims throughout the year. These payments are being paid in the calendar year (Noe et al. 2007). In addition, it will ensure that none of the workers quit the company in the middle of the year, reducing the expenses connected with employing new staff.

The 31st of May 2022 has been designated as the day on which a further review of this policy will take place, and that particular day has been reserved for that specific function. The insurance provider anticipates that the policy will be in effect for a length of time that is equivalent to three years in total if everything goes according to plan. From this, the bonus will be paid out over those three years in three distinct payments.

After that, the organization will conduct the appropriate evaluation processes to determine whether the bonus policy has succeeded in achieving the objectives it set out to achieve. The policy will be reviewed to make any required adjustments to enhance the results before it is given the go-ahead to be implemented across the whole of the firm. Numerous stakeholders will be included in the process. Drafting the policy will be the responsibility of the department of human resources, and they will work on it in conjunction with the managers of the other departments. As a direct result, the policy will be subjected to an approval procedure that will include the heads of every department in Bettamatt before it can be implemented in that location. After that, a vote will be taken in the human resources department to decide whether the bonus policy will be approved. The results of the poll will be announced. When everything is said and done, the organization’s senior financial officials and executive officers will confer with one another over the policy before deciding whether to give it official authorization.

The name of the new policy will be BettaPerf, an abbreviation for better organizational performance. This name will refer to the insurance plan. This name was chosen because it was considered the most accurately describe the objectives of the new policy being implemented throughout the organization. As a result, it was deemed to be the most suitable alternative available. The first letter of the acronym, “betta,” is an abbreviation not only for the name of the company Bettammatt but also for the word “better.” The second portion of the term focuses on the improved performance anticipated as a direct consequence of the policy and explains why this is the case.

The department of sales and marketing will get most of the attention provided due to the policy’s provisions. This is because the staff interacts directly with the consumers and has a significant role in determining the total amount of money received from sales. This is the case for several reasons, one of which is that the staff interacts directly with the customers. Every worker’s performance will be evaluated according to the goals established by the organization for the quantity of revenue generated via sales (Chakravarthy B. 1986).

The participants in this plan will be eligible for several benefits, including a one-time cash payment, the opportunity to participate in an incentive program, and a bonus at the end of the year. Any workers who, as of the date of the assessment, have shown that they have gone above and beyond the requirements that have been established will be eligible to receive the one-time payment in the form of the lump sum reward. This money will be made available to them. In addition, those organization workers who successfully fulfill the targets set for them will be eligible to receive the award. After the year, each employee will get a bonus payment, which will be based on the total number of bonuses the worker has accumulated over the year.

References

Chakravarthy, B. S. (1986). Measuring strategic performance. Strategic management journal, 7(5), 437- 458.

Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B. A., & Wright, P. M. (2007). Fundamentals of human resource management

4

Company Analysis

Marion Allen

Rasmussen College

Healthcare Operations Management

Deborah Ryan

July 9th, 2022


Company Analysis

The role of managers and technology

As technology is becoming a big part of the health care systems, the role of health information managers is becoming more significant. There is a large amount of information related to the patients in a single hospital; the managers must analyze and organize this information by storing it in electronic health records. This helps keep the information about the patient’s medical condition and any other medical history on a cloud that the internet can access. The manager should have enough knowledge related to technology to help him monitor technological aspects (Alolayyan, 2020). The managers must also ensure that the staff members have the required training and information related to the technology used in the healthcare facility.

Ways to improve healthcare outcomes and reduce costs through new technology

To cut down costs in the healthcare setting by using technology, we first have to replace the repetitive tasks that require a lot of time with one simple technology-aided system. For example, administrative tasks are very tedious and time-consuming; involving technology in this area can save money and time. This will also improve the outcome as there will be no misreporting due to human errors. Staff can also be minimized by using scheduling apps, eliminating the need to coordinate the treatments and appointments with the physicians. The billing and insurance processing can also be time-consuming (Kruse, 2018). With the help of technology, it can also be automated, which can improve the financial condition of the healthcare facility. We can also introduce health management apps to the patients. This will improve the health outcomes by reminding the patients of their medication routine and giving them a progress report of their lab reports.

Deficiencies in the clinical use of technology

Technology supplies comfort and convenience to the health care staff members but also creates excellent chances of blunders. For example, when the electronic health records are on the server of the healthcare facility, these can be accessed by hackers, who can use this information for ill purposes. A strong firewall must protect confidential patient information to fight cyber-attacks. Another deficiency is related to the lack of knowledge of the technology among both staff and the patients. There must be awareness sessions to educate the patient about how the technology can help them.

Technology and medical errors

Medical errors cause more than 250,000 deaths annually in the United States. These errors might be due to the administration of the wrong medicine, which is caused by miscommunication or poorly written prescription notes. Both interphases indicate human errors that danger the patient’s life. This situation can be avoided by using computerized prescriptions. Technology-aided systems eliminate the chances of human errors and improve the patient’s safety. However, technology is not only the solution to errors; the human-computer interface causes some errors. (Vilela, 2019).

Concentration on profit margins

Healthcare facilities in the concentrated markets earn a more significant profit because they have higher prices than the other options and more profit margin. This is due to the high headcount of patients visiting the hospitals and higher rates of hospital fees charged to the patients. On the other hand, the healthcare facilities in the competitive market have low-profit margins; they have to survive and compete with other options which can provide low prices to the patients. So, the healthcare facilities in a concentrated market earn more than those in a competitive need. For instance, in the case of coronary angioplasty, the profit margin of an entire healthcare facility is 25.1% more than the competitive one.

References

Alolayyan, M. N., Alyahya, M. S., Alalawin, A. H., Shoukat, A., & Nusairat, F. T. (2020). Health information technology and hospital performance the role of health information quality in teaching hospitals. Heliyon6(10), e05040. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05040

Kruse, C. S., & Beane, A. (2018). Health Information Technology Continues to Show Positive Effect on Medical Outcomes: Systematic Review. Journal of medical Internet research20(2), e41. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.8793

Vilela, R., & Jericó, M. C. (2019). Implementing technologies to prevent medication errors at a high-complexity hospital: analysis of cost and results. Einstein (Sao Paulo, Brazil)17(4), eGS4621. https://doi.org/10.31744/einstein_journal/2019GS4621

Appendix page

This will also improve the outcome as there will be no misreporting due to human errors. The billing and insurance processing can also be very time-consuming. Technology provides a positive turn to healthcare outcomes. (Kruse, C. S., & Beane, A. (2018). Health Information Technology Continues to Show Positive Effect on Medical Outcomes: Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Internet)

This helps keep the information about the patient’s medical condition and any other medical history on a cloud that the internet can access. The manager should have enough knowledge related to technology which can help him in monitoring technological aspects. The hospital technology manager, hospital performance, and quality of information are directly proportional to technology usage. (Alolayyan, M. N., Alyahya, M. S., Alalawin, A. H., Shoukat, A., & Nusairat, F. T. (2020). Health information technology and hospital performance the role of health information quality in teaching hospitals. Heliyon6(10), e05040)

These errors might be due to wrong medications caused by miscommunication due to poor prescription understanding. This can be avoided by using computerized prescriptions (Vilela, R., & Jericó, M. C. (2019). Implementing technologies to prevent medication errors at a high-complexity hospital: analysis of cost and results. Einstein (Sao Paulo, Brazil)17(4), eGS4621)

Explain how the globalization of healthcare can impact the improvement and outcome of healthcare results and subsequently improve healthcare costs.

The globalization of healthcare has provided opportunities for many organizations to rapidly develop their products and to expand their network of customers. But with this globalization, we also need to realize there are also a number of important economic and public health concerns.

Healthcare organizations have an obligation to understand the interdependencies inherent in their supply chains, and to examine their supply chain practices through a strategic lens focused on the public’s health. We are seeing changes in where and how many healthcare products are produced and this is not always in the best interest of U.S. hospitals or our patients.

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