Lit review 2

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 Literature Review  

Literature Review

Note: Identify themes from the publications in an effort to organize the publications into a logical format. Do not use
subheadings for the themes, rather, introduce the new theme in the first sentence of the first paragraph when you are
switching themes. Also, be careful not to provide an annotated bibliography (i.e., each paragraph describes only one
study). Rather, comparing and contrasting publications on the same theme contributes to a thoughtful review of the
literature. A minimum of 10 publications should be in this review draft.

Key concepts, themes, similarities, differences, strengths, and weaknesses should be part of the literature

Summarize and synthesize the review of literature (last paragraph)
o highlight what is known about the problem, identify any gaps in the literature

Running head: RESEARCH PROJECT 1


Literature Review

(Gopalkrishnan, 2018) took a closer look at some of the most critical aspects of cultural diversity and mental health. People in the mental health field all over the world must deal with patients from various cultural backgrounds. The way people view health and illness, the way they seek treatment, the nature of the therapeutic relationship, and even issues of racism and discrimination are all impacted by cultural differences. Many aspects of mental health are influenced by cultural differences around the world, including how health and illness are perceived, how people seek treatment and the attitudes of both consumers and practitioners. According to a large body of research, health and disease are viewed differently in different cultures.

(Tanaka, 2018) published a paper and discussed that the people with mental health problems (PMHP), stigma can have a devastating effect on their quality of life. Results show how stigma is experienced in culturally and socioeconomically distinct contexts and how it is affected by various factors. People with mental health problems (PMHP) face stigma because of cultural traits like the belief that mental illness is a family disease and the tendency to overestimate how severe their condition is and how much it will affect their lives.

(Stangl, 2019) proposed a well-documented link between stigma and health-seeking behavior, participation in health care, and compliance with treatment for a wide range of health conditions worldwide. Stigmatization frameworks tend to focus on one health condition at a time and tend to focus on the psychological pathways that connect individuals. Silos have grown up around research on health stigmas, making it challenging to compare disparate conditions and find new ways to reduce health stigma and improve health outcomes for everyone. Stigmatization is an essential contributor to poor health outcomes worldwide. Research and interventions based on a common framework can help us better understand how stigma affects people across various diseases.

(Ikonte, 2020) collected data from the National Health Interview Survey was examined. Differences in the prevalence of SPD and depression between US-born and immigrant populations were measured using chi-square tests. The relationship between mental health outcomes (depression, SPD) and their predictors was studied using logistic regression models (nativity, length of residence). Depression and SPD trends were analysed using general linear models. The study included a total of 101,142 American adults. There was an 11% (OR 0.89, 95% CI [0.85,0.95]) lower risk of depression among immigrants compared to those born in the United States. Immigrants (p=0.011) and US-born individuals (p=0.0001) had lower depression prevalence over time than did those who were born in the United States (p=0.0001). An additional 17% (OR 1.17, 95% CI [1.00,1.36]) of SPD was found in immigrants living in the United States for more than 15 years. Among immigrants, SPD (p=0.002) and depression (p0.0001) were more common as time in the country increased (p0.0001).

(Nmezi, 2022) said that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death (U.S.). For example, non-Hispanic Black adults have a higher cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality rate than non-Hispanic white adults. An increasing number of non-Hispanic black adults in the United States are African immigrants, but little is known about how specific psychological and social factors (such as depression and cultural acculturation) influence their CVH. We wanted to see if acculturation influenced the link between depression severity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in African immigrants, and if so, how. Participants were drawn from the Baltimore-Washington D.C. area’s African Immigrant Health Study. The Patient Health Questionnaire-8 was used to measure the severity of depression symptoms (PHQ-8). The seven metrics of the American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple rated cardiovascular health from poor to ideal. It was found that the length of time spent in the country and the strategy used to integrate into the culture were both essential moderators of acculturation. The moderating effect of acculturation on depression and CVH was examined using multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for known confounders. Three hundred and seventeen African immigrants took part in the research. As a result, most (60 per cent) of the study participants were female. A total of 8.8% of those who participated in the research reported moderate-to-severe signs of depression.

(Foo, 2018) reported that the world’s migrant population grows, it’s essential to look at how depression affects this often-vulnerable demographic. International migrants are at an increased risk of developing depression, and this review and meta-analysis aim to examine the prevalence of depression among these individuals. There were 25 studies in the review. Using a random-effects model meta-analysis, 15.6 percent of migrants were found to have the condition. More must be done to ensure the psychological well-being and mental health outcomes of newly arrived migrants by incorporating additional preventive measures and increasing the level of assistance they receive. Psychiatric disorders should be studied more thoroughly among members of this subpopulation.

(Oppedal, 2020) said that in recent decades, many high-income countries have seen a shift in population demographics toward greater cultural diversity as a result of high rates of immigration. Immigrant-background youth are more likely to suffer mental health issues due to socioeconomic deprivation and pre-migration trauma.

The resettlement countries’ multi-cultural contexts also present several acculturations demands that may affect their mental health in either beneficial or detrimental ways. Developing the cultural competence required to thrive and participate socially in the heritage and the majority culture is one of these acculturation tasks.

Acculturation-related risk and protective factors should be well-understood from the standpoint of public mental health. Acculturation measures that target the cultural competencies of youth from immigrant backgrounds and are theoretically linked to mental health have been lacking, which has jeopardised this responsibility.

(Abdulhamed, 2022) interested in the relationship between depression and generalised anxiety among first- and second-generation immigrant-background adolescents (aged 14–15) in Finland who have experienced discrimination. The Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (2017) conducted the National School Health Promotion Study (N = 73,690). The PHQ-2 (for depression) and GAD-7 (for generalised anxiety disorder) scales were used to gauge participants’ mental well-being.

There was a significant difference between first-generation and second-generation immigrant children regarding mental health symptoms, and they also had lower scores on all tests. The fact that 42% of first-generation immigrants said they couldn’t talk to anyone about their problems was concerning, as was the fact that more than a fifth of this generation’s youth rarely discussed personal issues with their parents.

(Slobodin, 2018) published the pilot study of a culturally appropriate psychosocial intervention that examined the mental health needs and expectations of asylum seekers in the United States. Participants were asylum-seekers in the Netherlands, most of whom fled violence in their home countries in the Middle East. Therapy expectations questionnaires were used with 11 participants and two focus groups to identify needs and expectations (17 participants).

According to the participants, post-migration stressors were more frequently linked to mental health problems than were past traumatic events. Often, health issues were suppressed because of shame, guilt, anxiety, and the fear of negative stigma. The stigma and burden of multiple stressors made it difficult for individuals and communities to provide support for those who were suffering from psychosocial distress. Our paper emphasises the importance of considering local mental health knowledge and the need to go beyond the trauma-focused approach to strengthen community capacity.

(Gkiouleka, 2018) assumed that the current socioeconomic instability does not appear to correlate with increased rates of depressive symptoms across countries, nor does it affect migrants and non-migrants alike. Migrants and non-migrants alike are more likely to suffer from depression if they have experienced financial hardship, domestic conflict as a child, female gender, and experiences of perceived discrimination. Living with children, on the other hand, has a protective effect. These associations between migrants and non-migrants, as well as within and between countries, vary widely. Depressive symptoms may be influenced by other factors, including mental health and context.

(Mucci, 2019) said that number of socio-environmental factors, such as a decline in social standing, discrimination, and being cut off from one’s family, contribute to the higher incidence of severe mental illnesses among migrant workers, including psychosis, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal is to comprehensively analyze and identify the most prevalent mental health issues among these workers and the most at-risk demographic groups. According to PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus, we looked at articles from 2009 to 2019 that used a variety of keywords.

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