Instructor’s Comment I think you might have misunderstood the assignment. None of the theories from class were used to analyze the case study. As it is, I cannot award many points. Can you please red

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Instructor’s Comment


I think you might have misunderstood the assignment. None of the theories from class were used to analyze the case study. As it is, I cannot award many points. Can you please redo this with the 5 theories from the lecture included?


I have uploaded assignment named Reflection.

Based on “Case Study: Fetal Abnormality” and other required topic study materials, write a 750-1,000-word reflection that answers the following questions:

  1. What is the Christian view of the nature of human persons, and which theory of moral status is it compatible with? How is this related to the intrinsic human value and dignity?
  2. Which theory or theories are being used by Jessica, Marco, Maria, and Dr. Wilson to determine the moral status of the fetus? What from the case study specifically leads you to believe that they hold the theory you selected?
  3. How does the theory determine or influence each of their recommendations for action?
  4. What theory do you agree with? Why? How would that theory determine or influence the recommendation for action?

Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.


Rubric

Explanation of the Christian view of the nature of human persons and the theory of moral status that it is compatible is clear, thorough, and explained with a deep understanding of the connection between them. Explanation is supported by topic study materials. 30%

The theory or theories that are used by each person to determine the moral status of the fetus is explained clearly and draws insightful relevant conclusions. Rationale for choices made is clearly supported by topic study materials and case study examples. 15%

Explanation of how the theory determines or influences each of their recommendations for action is clear, insightful, and demonstrates a deep understanding of the theory and its impact on recommendation for action. Explanation is supported by topic study materials. 15%

Evaluation of which theory is preferable within personal practice along with how that theory would influence personal recommendations for action is clear, relevant, and insightful. 10%

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

All format elements are correct.

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.


Here is a link to the Khan video on Moral Status. It will help explain the five theories discussed in the lecture:


https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/wi-phi/wiphi-value-theory/wiphi-ethics/v/moral-status

Instructor’s Comment I think you might have misunderstood the assignment. None of the theories from class were used to analyze the case study. As it is, I cannot award many points. Can you please red
REFLECTION ON ABNORMALITY 9 Reflection on Case Study: Fetal Abnormality Reflection on Case Study: Fetal Abnormality The topic of abortion always elicits controversy, emotions, and rhetoric; and this is because the varied viewpoints are influenced by such factors as traditions, religion, and personal experiences. These factors make an impact on individuals quite different, and hence those who are influenced by them in one way or the other cannot find common ground. The subject of abortion has been addressed in countless books, articles, demonstrations, as well as speeches. Most of the questions asked lack concrete answers (Best, 2018; Lee, 2015). Even when those answers are found, they lack strong scientific basis and not everyone thinks they are morally or ethically bound by them (Lee, 2004). The paper addresses a couple of issues raised in debates and speeches, such as when life is supposed to be considered as having begun as well as how it actually begins. Others include the Christian view on the human persons, and the theories which could inform their decision in regard to performing an abortion on the grounds of fetal abnormality. Human Persons According to the Christian View Christian ethics define what is to be considered as wrong behavior and acts which are virtuous from the perspective of a believer. The Christian morality is systematic and is subdivided into four main (cardinal) virtues and 3 theological virtues. The cardinal virtues include prudence, temperance, courage, and justice. Theological virtues include having Faith, Love, and Hope. These three trace their origin in Paul’s Epistle to Corinthians, and specifically in 1 Corinthians 13 (Beauchamp & Childress, 2013; Smith, 2013). A Christian is supposed to show love, irrespective of the condition that the other person has. Life begins at conception, and Jessica is right to consider all that is living sacred. Aunt Maria seems to be a faithful Christian who does not only have faith but also hope. This is why her first reaction was to pray, although the news was also traumatizing for her. These two embody the theological Christian virtues. With Marco, the cardinal virtues are prominent since he shows courage and temperance, and he is also trying to make the doctor see the sense in not breaking the news to Jessica while she is not emotionally ready. As for the doctor, justice supersedes all other considerations (Oderberg, 2008). The doctor says that abortion is a ‘scientifically’ and medically wise decision. Some of the Christian denominations argue in favor of allowing women the right to reproductive freedom. Nevertheless, most Christians are of the opinion that abortion should only happen if the pregnancy is posing serious health risks to the mother. Based on the information given in the case, it is unclear if such serious threats are in the offing. There is only 25% chance of the child developing Down’s syndrome. As for the lack of limbs, there are successful people such as Nick Vujicic who made it in life (Mitchell, 2014; Castuera, 2017). Theories Being Used by Jessica, Her Husband Marco, Aunt Maria, and Dr. Wilson There are several moral arguments which could arise while trying to address the question at hand. For instance, utilitarianism would insist on weighing all the costs and benefits of keeping the baby to determine which decision brings about the highest level of happiness to the legitimate stakeholders. The pain of the fetus and the denial of the chance to live must be considered as well. Dr. Wilson has an amoral attitude and is simply talking about the options available (Foster, 2017). Marco is a libertarian. He is allowing his wife the freedom to choose and has pledged to support whatever decision she finds fit. For him, the most important thing is to allow the mother (as the most affected party) all the autonomy she needs. He had hoped to share the news when she was in the most emotionally stable situation so that she can handle the issue and make the decision objectively (Beauchamp & Childress, 2013). Maria has deontological concerns and she is encouraging Jessica to respect human life. According to her, the fetus is already a person, and abortion would be equivalent to murder. Jessica is undecided and is still in shock, but she is also weighing the options based on the family’s present situation and the most probable future. All the four individuals have some aspects of virtue ethics though. This is why each of them is talking about the rights and wrongs. They only differ in regard to what those rights and wrongs are (Oderberg, 2008). Influence of Theory on the Recommendations for Action Christians are supposed to be objective in everything they do and consider the Bible as their primary material for reference. Jeremiah 1:5 says that God knew Jeremiah before he was formed in his mother’s womb. Before this major prophet was born, the Lord set him apart and made him a prophet. Therefore, it is clear that individuals matter even before they are born. They have value and dignity. Abortion does not only deny them the right to live but also makes it impossible for the human race to tap into the value which those victims could have possessed. It is a loss for the whole of humanity (Best, 2018; Castle, 2011). Whenever a Christian is weighing the options regarding abortion, therefore, they have to recognize the fact that life begins at conception. Maria recognizes this fact, and she is encouraging Jessica and to let God’s desire be realized. Dr. Wilson is a Scientologist, and hence the reason he insists that abortion is a worthy option. It is obvious that each of them is influenced by their backgrounds and life experiences in one way of the other (Mitchell, 2014). Maria might have witnessed positive developments in her life which she might be considering to be God’s doing, and hence her absolute faith in prayers. Maria perceives this to be an additional challenge to their precarious situation. The experience that the family has gone through could have caused her to be skeptical about the future (Lee, 2015). The Influence of Virtue Ethics on the Recommendations for Actions Pure virtue ethics, as long as those ethical positions are anchored on Christianity, is what is needed in this case. Virtual ethics have their advantages. First, it facilitates reasonable accounts of the moral motivation. Those who are courageous and just, and also have faith and hope will most likely make a bold decision and also avoid acting in haste. Marco argues that there is no need for the rush, and this is because he knows that his wife will have to make rational decisions with lifetime consequences (Foster, 2017; Lee, 2004). Virtue ethics are adequate motivation to act on the morality as opposed to merely dwelling on abstract theories. Those who embody the correct traits have perspectives which map on to their moral reasoning. They focus on the individual and are geared towards turning them into much better people. It is a simple system, and a wide variety of people may apply it with ease. The problem is that it is influenced by culture and personal experiences. Nevertheless, virtue ethics are still superior as the focus is on character (Castuera, 2017). With deontology, individuals act the way they do from a sense of duty. Consequentialism is weak since the focus is on the outcome, meaning that one might be prompted to do something hurtful just because the outcome appears to be appealing. In regard to utilitarianism, it is hard to draw the line. Besides, it would be time consuming or even impossible to determine which acts lead to the greatest job to the greatest number of people. Virtue ethics is the best approach since the moral motivation is to appeal to the virtues themselves and not just the deeds (Suomala, 2017). Conclusion Christians ought to base their actions on love, hope, and faith; as well as on such cardinal virtues as courage, temperance, prudence, and justice. Those who are courageous endure and/or confront uncertainty boldly, and this is what Marco is doing. Temperance is lacking in aunt Maria and doctor Wilson since they do not seem to be in a position to practice self-control (Mitchell, 2014). Maria, nonetheless, has faith and hope that in spite of the doctor’s findings, a miracle could still happen. It is imperative to perceive the Bible as the primary source of wisdom when one is trying to determine the appropriateness of their decisions. Virtue ethics is the most appropriate ethical foundation as the Christians can clearly recognize what they can and cannot do (Smith, 2013). References Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J. (2013). Principles of biomedical ethics (7th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press Best, M. (2018). The Dilemma of Prenatal Screening. Ethics & Medicine, 34(2). https://link-galegroup-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/apps/doc/A544829324/AONE?u=canyonuniv&sid=AONE&xid=ea53e4d8 Castle, M.A. (2011). Abortion in the United States’ bible belt: Organizing for power and empowerment. Reproductive Health, 8(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4755-8-1 Castuera, I. (2017). A social history of Christian thought on abortion: Ambiguity vs. certainty in moral debate. American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 76(1), 121–227. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajes.12174 Foster, S.M. (2017). The feminist case against abortion. The Human Life Review. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLAn4291577&site=ehost-live&scope=site Lee, P. (2004). A Christian philosopher’s view of recent directions in the abortion debate. Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality, 10(1). 7-31. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a2h&AN=15219284&site=ehost-live&scope=site Lee, P. (2015). Moral status and the margins of human life. American Journal of Jurisprudence, 60(1). Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ofs&AN=103605188&site=ehost-live&scope=site Mitchell, C.B. (2014). Human dignity: A first principle. Ethics & Medicine, 30(3). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/1610748447/fulltextPDF/FC4B7FE8C99D4F60PQ/3?accountid=7374 Oderberg, D.S. (2008). The metaphysical status of the embryo: Some arguments revisited. Journal of Applied Philosophy. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=34805632&site=ehost-live&scope=site Smith, J.H.B. (2013). Canaanite child sacrifice, abortion, and the bible. Journal of Ministry & Theology, 17(2), 90–125 Suomala, K. R. (2017). Immigrants and evangelicals: What does the Bible say? Cross Currents, 67(3), 590–599. https://doi.org/10.1111/cros.12281

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