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Answer all these questions about yourself and your opinion.


Ch. 1: #1 – Percentage of students who describe their health as good, very good, or excellent:

Men

Women

Average

93.4%

91.3%

91.9%

Top Ten Health Problems

1. Allergies

21.5%

2. Sinus infection

17.0%

3. Back pain

12.6%

4. Strep throat

11.5%

5. Urinary tract infection

9.8%

6. Asthma

9.4%

7. Migraine headache

7.7%

8. Broken bone/fracture/sprain

7.5%

9. Ear infection

7.5%

10. Bronchitis

6.0%

Proportion of college students who reported being diagnosed or treated for these health problems in the past year. Do you identify with any of the Top Ten Health Problems? How would you describe your health? Take note of this within your online journal.

#2, Ch1 – To lower your risk of heart disease, get your blood pressure and cholesterol checked. Don’t smoke. Stay at a healthy weight. Exercise regularly.

  • To lower your risks of major diseases, get regular checkups. Make sure you are immunized against infectious illnesses.
  • To lower your risks of substance abuse and related illnesses and injuries, don’t drink or limit how much you drink. Avoid illegal drugs.
  • To lower your risk of sexually transmitted infections or unwanted pregnancy, abstain from sex. If you engage in sexual activities, protect yourself with contraceptives, condoms, and spermicides.
  • To prevent car accidents, stay off the road in hazardous circumstances, such as bad weather. Wear a seat belt when you drive and use defensive driving techniques.

Identify your top preventive health priority—lowering your risk of heart disease, for instance, or avoiding accidents. Write down a single action you can take this week that will reduce your health risks. As soon as you take this step, write a brief reflection in your online journal.

Ch. 2: #1 – Try some of these strategies from positive psychology and comment on your experience in your online journal.

Do

  • Smile. Putting on a happy face makes for a happy spirit.
  • Focus. By being fully present in the moment, you’ll experience it more intensely.
  • Share your joy. Talking about and celebrating good experiences extends positive feelings over and above the positive event.
  • Travel through time. Vividly remembering or anticipating positive events—a technique psychologists call “positive mental time travel”—boosts levels of happiness and life satisfaction.

Don’t

  • Don’t hide your feelings. Suppressing positive feelings—because of shyness or a sense of modesty, for instance—diminishes them and may have physiological consequences on your health.
  • Don’t get distracted. Unrelated worries and thoughts detract from the here-and-now of a positive experience.
  • Don’t find fault. Paying attention to negative aspects of otherwise positive experiences sabotages levels of happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.
  • Don’t go there. “Negative mental time travel”—reflecting on what went wrong or what may go wrong—can lower self-esteem and foster depressive symptoms.

#2, Ch2 – Over the past seven days, students getting enough sleep to feel rested in the morning:

Male

Female

Average

0 days

8.2%

10.8%

10.0%

1-2 days

28.4%

32.8%

31.4%

3-5 days

50.0%

46.9%

47.9%

6+ days

13.4%

9.5%

10.8%

Students often feel tired, dragged out, or sleepy during the day:

Male

Female

Average

0 days

11.8%

6.1%

8.0%

1-2 days

33.7%

27.7%

29.6%

3-5 days

41.6%

46.3%

44.7%

6+ days

12.9%

19.9%

17.7%

Impact of sleepiness on daytime activities:

Male

Female

Average

No problem

12.4%

7.5%

9.1%

A little problem

49.3%

47.0%

47.7%

More than a little problem

23.7%

26.1%

25.3%

A big problem

10.4%

13.4%

12.4%

A very big problem

4.1%

6.0%

5.4%

Record your sleeping pattern for seven days (either last 7 or the next 7 days). Include the number of hours you sleep in your online journal and reflect on the following questions:

  • Over the past seven days, did you get enough sleep to feel rested in the mornings?
  • How often did you feel tired, dragged out, or sleepy during the day?
  • What was the impact of sleepiness on your daytime activities?

Ch. 3: #1 – Within the past 12 months, students’ ratings of the overall level of stress experienced:

Male

Female

Average

No stress

4.2%

0.9%

2.0%

Less than average stress

12.6%

5.3%

7.7%

Average stress

40.4%

38.1%

38.9%

More than average stress

35.9%

45.0%

42.0%

Tremendous stress

6.9%

10.7%

9.5%

This table summarizes the levels of stress reported by college students in the previous 12 months. In your online journal, indicate how would you rate your stress level and indicate particular stressors that may contribute to your amount of stress.

#2, CH3 – One of the most effective ways of coping with stress and other psychological challenges is by using a journal to monitor and express your feelings. Try the following stress-reducing exercises and record your responses and reflections in your online journal:

Assess your stress. Take a strain inventory of your body every day to determine where things aren’t feeling quite right. Ask yourself, “What’s keeping me from feeling terrific today?” Focusing on problem spots such as stomach knots or neck tightness increases your sense of control over stress.

  • Reconstruct stressful situations. Think about a recent episode of distress; then write down three ways it could have gone better and three ways it could have gone worse. This should help you see that the situation wasn’t as disastrous as it might have been and help you find ways to cope better in the future.
  • Practice self-compassion. As discussed in Chapter 2, treating yourself kindly in the face of stressful circumstances helps turn wisdom and awareness inward and provides a sense of perspective and connectedness.
  • Soothe yourself. List some of the nice things you can do to soothe yourself, and include at least three of them in your daily routine. Make notes on how you feel after such experiences and which ones seem to have the most lasting impact.

Ch. 4: #1. Students who say they felt very lonely:

Male

Female

Average

No, never

31.7%

21.1%

24.7%

No, not in the past 12 months

19.5%

18.5%

18.8%

Yes, in the past 2 weeks

19.7%

25.8%

23.8%

Yes, in the past 30 days

11.1%

14.7%

13.5%

Yes, in the past 12 months

18.0%

19.9%

19.3%

Anytime within the past 12 months

48.8%

60.4%

56.6%

Source: American College Health Association. American College Health Association–National College Health Assessment II: Reference Group Executive Summary, Fall 2012. Hanover, MD: American College Health Association, 2013.

As a student, have you ever felt lonely? If so, when? Reflect on this time within your online journal.

Ch. 5: #1. College students who report:

  • Eating no servings of fruits and vegetables a day: 7%
  • Eating one to two servings: 61%
  • Eating three to four servings: 27%
  • Eating five or more servings: 5%

For a three-day period (including one weekend day), keep track of your veggie intake. Put a star by those you like most. If you aren’t getting at least five servings a day, add at least one of your favorites every day. Record your observations in your online journal.

#2, Ch6. Do you ease onto your scale, hoping for a certain number to appear—maybe what you weighed when you graduated from high school? If so, you may be setting yourself up for disappointment. Rather than focus on just one number, consider other ways to think about weight:

  • “If-only weight”: A weight you would choose if you could weigh whatever you wanted—just like the height or eye color you’d have chosen if you could.
  • “Happy weight”: A weight that is not the one you’d choose as your ideal but that you’d be happy with.
  • “Acceptable weight”: A weight that would not make you particularly happy but that you could be satisfied with.
  • “Disappointed weight”: A weight that would not be acceptable.
  • “Never-again weight”: The all-time high you never want to hit again.

In your online journal, jot down your if-only weight, happy weight, acceptable weight, disappointed weight, and never-again weight. Then write down your actual weight, as of today. How many pounds is your real weight from your acceptable weight?

Assuming that you can lose a pound a week, how many weeks would it take to get to that weight? How do you envision yourself feeling and behaving once you reach your acceptable weight? Do you have any plans once you reach your acceptable weight, such as buying clothes or taking a weekend trip? How will your life be different?

Ch. 7: #1. Did you engage in moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for at least 30 minutes in the last seven days? Or did you exercise vigorously for at least 20 minutes? How often do you exercise? Are you in better shape now than you were a year ago? Would you like to improve your fitness? Record your feelings on your fitness today and in the past.

Ch. 8: #1. The Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) has worked with nongovernmental organizations around the world to develop a consensus about the life behaviors of a sexually healthy and responsible adult.

These include:

•Appreciating one’s own body

  • Seeking information about reproduction as needed
  • Affirming that sexual development may or may not include reproduction or genital sexual experience
  • Interacting with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways
  • Affirming one’s own sexual orientation and respecting the sexual orientation of others
  • Expressing love and intimacy in appropriate ways
  • Developing and maintaining meaningful relationships
  • Avoiding exploitative or manipulative relationships
  • Making informed choices about family options and lifestyles
  • Enjoying and expressing one’s sexuality throughout life
  • Expressing one’s sexuality in ways congruent with one’s values
  • Discriminating between life-enhancing sexual behaviors and those that are harmful to oneself and/or others

From the preceding list, choose three characteristics that you would like to improve in your intimate relationships. Why did you choose these three? Do they have special significance for you? How will you go about strengthening them? Do you have other goals for responsible sexuality? Record your reflections in your online journal.

#2, Ch10. Here are some basic principles of self-defense:

  • Eat a balanced diet.
  • Avoid fatty foods.
  • Get enough sleep.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Don’t smoke.
  • Control your alcohol intake.
  • Wash your hands frequently with hot water and soap.
  • Don’t share food, drinks, silverware, or glasses.
  • Spend as little time as possible in crowds during cold and flu season.
  • Don’t touch your eyes, mouth, and nose.
  • Use tissues.
  • Avoid irritating air pollutants.

In your online journal, write your own goals and top strategies for preventing infection.

Ch. 11: #1.

Marijuana Actual Use Perceived Use

Percent %

Male

Female

Average

Male

Female

Average

Never used

62.6

67.8

66.1

12.0

8.7

9.9

Used, but not in the past 30 days

18.2

18.8

18.6

11.4

9.3

10.0

Used 1-9 days

10.7

9.6

9.9

46.3

44.6

45.0

Used 10-29 days

5.1

2.5

3.4

22.4

26.6

25.2

Used all 30 days

3.4

1.3

2.0

7.9

10.7

9.9

Any use within the past 30 days

19.2

13.4

15.3

76.6

81.9

80.1

All other drugs combined* Actual Use Perceived Use

Percent %

Male

Female

Average

Male

Female

Average

Never used

55.5

74.5

68.3

11.9

9.3

10.2

Used, but not in the past 30 days

23.6

17.0

19.0

15.8

14.6

15.0

Used 1-9 days

14.9

6.8

9.5

45.3

44.4

44.5

Used 10-29 days

3.1

1.1

1.8

18.3

21.2

20.3

Used all 30 days

2.9

0.7

1.5

8.7

10.5

10.0

Any use within the past 30 days

20.9

8.5

12.7

72.3

76.1

74.8

*Includes cigars, smokeless tobacco, cocaine, methamphetamine, other amphetamines, sedatives, hallucinogens, anabolic steroids, opiates, inhalants, MDMA, other designer drugs, other illegal drugs. (Excludes alcohol, cigarettes, tobacco from a water pipe, and marijuana.)

Did you know that more than 6 in 10 undergraduates have never used marijuana or other drugs? What has been your experience? If you are among the majority, what are the factors that have enabled you to say no to drugs? If you have used drugs, what were your reasons? What role do drugs now play in your life? What has been their impact? Write down your feelings about how drugs might affect your health and your life in your online journal.

#2, Ch12. How can you tell if a friend or loved one has a substance use disorder? Look for the following warning signs:

An abrupt change in attitude.

  • Mood swings.
  • A decline in performance.
  • Increased sensitivity.
  • Secrecy.
  • Physical changes.
  • Money problems.
  • Changes in appearance.
  • Defiance of restrictions.
  • Changes in relationships.

Does someone you care about show signs of substance abuse? If so, write down your observations in your online journal. Describe your feelings and list some options for what to do next. If not, create a hypothetical situation in which you discover that a friend or family member is abusing drugs.

Ch. 13: #1.

Ethnic/Racial Group

Percentage Who Have Used CAM

American Indian/Alaska Native

50%

White

43

Asian

40

African American

26

All Americans

38

Ethnicity is only one factor that influences the use of complementary and alternative medicine. Have you tried a CAM therapy? If so, do you think that your racial or ethnic background played any role in this decision? What other factors have shaped your health-care choices? Record your observations in your online journal.

Ch. 14: #1. Percentage Feeling “Very Safe”

Male

Female

Average

On their campus (daytime)

89.7

86.8

87.6

On their campus (nighttime)

53.8

28.7

37.0

In the community surrounding their school (daytime)

58.4

46.9

50.7

In the community surrounding their school (nighttime)

27.7

12.5

17.6

Do you give much thought to your day-to-day safety? What do you think is the greatest threat to your well-being? Are there steps you could take to reduce the potential danger? Have you shared your concern with others? Reflect on your answers to these questions and write down your thoughts in your online journal.

Ch. 15: #1. As your parents, grandparents, and other relatives get older, here is what you can do in advance:

  • Suggest a surrogate.
  • Talk to loved ones.
  • Watch for warning signals.
  • Focus on values.
  • Involve the person’s primary physician.
  • Investigate alternative living options.
  • Make sure you know where to find key documents.

Describe the steps you and your family are taking in your online journal.

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