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Read Chapter Five in the text. Take notes on all the components of curriculum development. Review the examples of lesson plans in the chapter. Through the internet or other resources (texts, curriculum, etc.) locate two other lesson plans. Compare, contrast and critique the three lesson plans to the format presented in the text. In two paragraphs summarize/analyze which format seems the best approach to effecting behavior change.

Note: this the examples of lesson plans in the chapter.


Lesson Plan Example

Super Smiles is a program designed to be delivered to multi-ethnic males and females on Tuesdays and Thursdays in February to support National Children’s Dental Health Month. The lesson plan—which is featured in this section—is part of a community intervention to improve dental hygiene among 6- and 7-year-old children participating in an after school program at the local youth community center. The intervention’s block plan (Figure 5-4) follows.

The following sample lesson/presentation plan for Tuesday of week 2—from the block plan—shows in detail the elements used in such a plan (Source: Class project—Rachel Willmann, Sara Pennington, and Mandy Abrams):

206 Lesson Plan Example

Week #1

Week #2

Tuesday Thursday

Tuesday Thursday

Pretest (10) Experiment/ Lecture/Discussion

Identifying Plaque (20)

Lecture/Discussion/ Educational Game/ Display
Sugar (30)

Brainstorming/ Group Work
5 Food Groups (40)

Brainstorming/ Discussion Introduction Teeth (20)

Discussion/ Demonstration/ Experimentation Removing Plaque (10)

Discussion/Puzzle

Snack Considera- tions (15)

Demonstration/ Personal Improvement/Lecture Brushing and Flossing (20)

Discussion Audio-video Plaque Defined (15) Brushing (20)

Personal Evaluation (10) Improvement
Brushing (10)

Experiment/
Demonstration/
Lecture
Plaque and Decay (15) Flossing (20)

Demonstration/ Audio-Visual/ Experiment

Personal Improvement Flossing (5)

Self-Appraisal Problem Solving Gum Disease (10) Signs of a Worn

Toothbrush (5)

Evaluation (10)

Evaluation (10)

Week #3

Week #4

Tuesday Thursday

Tuesday Thursday

Personal Pretest (5) Improvement
Brushing and
Flossing
(5)

Personal Improvement Brushing and Flossing (5)

Personal Improvement Brushing and Flossing (5)

Brainstorming/ Personal Improvement Problem Solving Brushing and Flossing Functions of Teeth (15) (5)

Role Play/ Brainstorm/Models 5 Keeping Teeth Safe (20)

Final Dental Exam Post-Program Evaluation (20)

Lecture Field Trip Parts of a Tooth (10) Guest Speaker Demonstration

Dentist and Dental Helpers (30)

Displays

Teeth and Gums Can Be Injured by . . . (20)

Displays

Super Smile Fun

(25)

Lecture

Surrounding Tissue

(10)

Field Trip
Guest Speaker Demonstration Examining Teeth (20)

Cooperative Learning First Aid (20)

Personal Improvement Don’t Forget (5)

Experiment/Model/ Group Discussion/ Brainstorming SpecializedTeeth(15)

Field Trip
Guest Speaker Demonstration ProfessionalTeeth Cleaning (10)

Evaluation (10)

Model/Cooperative Evaluation (5) Learning
Primary Teeth (10)

Evaluation (10)

Figure 5-4

Block Plan:
Super Smiles
Source: Class project con- tributed by Rachel Will- mann, Sara Pennington, and Mandy Abrams. Reprinted with permission.

Lesson/ Presentation Plan

page232image18971264

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, first-grade student will identify

Chapter 5 Presentation and Unit Plan Development 207

Name: Super Smiles
Grade level/setting: Pebble Creek After School Program at the Youth

Community Center
Date: Lesson Plan for Week #2 Tuesday Topic/unit: Dental Health

Lesson title: Healthy and Unhealthy Snacks Theory: Contemplation, Action, and Preparation Age of Target Population: 6–7 year oldsDemographics: 11 girls and 9 boys, multi-ethnic

NHES: 1.2.2. 2.2.1.

3.2.1. 7.2.1.

• Cognitive:
healthy snack foods by circling appropriate choices on the worksheet with 90% accuracy.

  • Psychomotor: The participant will create a food collage to classify multi- ple examples of healthy food choices discussed in the lecture as high in sugar or not high in sugar.
  • Psychomotor: By the end of the session, first-grade student will demon- strate plaque removal on tooth surfaces, to his or her partner, by remov- ing 95% of the disclosing tablet stains using the method of brushing described.• Affective: Following the discussion on healthy snacks, the learner will verbally justify which of the three foods he or she believes would be the best choice to promote dental health.We discussed last Thursday the importance of brushing and flossing. Re- member that plaque can slowly destroy our teeth if we do not remove it by brushing and flossing. Today, we will be learning about healthy and un- healthy snacks. We will also be brushing and flossing our teeth at the end of class with disclosing tablets or plaque detectors. When we finish today, you will know which snacks are healthy choices for your teeth, so you can pro- tect your dental health. You will also get to improve your brushing and floss- ing skills using special plaque detectors.

Recognize that there are multiple dimensions of health (NHES, 2007).
Identify how the family influences personal health practices and behaviors (NHES, 2007).

Identify trusted adults and professionals who can help pro- mote health (NHES, 2007).

Demonstrate healthy practices and behaviors to maintain or improve personal health (NHES, 2007).

Introduction

208 Lesson Plan Example

Estimated
Method/ Time Materials

Content Outline Strategy Needed Needed

I. Sugar

  1. Common sources• Cookies
    • Cakes
    • Sugared gum
  2. Harmful materials • Bacteria• Acid

Lecture Discussion

Educational game

Display
(see following

pages)

Experiment Food tasting

10 Minutes

10 Minutes

10 Minutes

Magazines Scissors Pictures of

examples Construction

paper Glue

Assortment of healthy snack foods (see at- tached)

page233image18883776

II. Snacks

  1. Considerations
  2. Healthy choices• Fruits
    • Vegetables • Nuts, etc.

Discussion Puzzle
(see following

pages)

15 Minutes

Worksheet: “Smart

Snacks for

Me” Colors

III. Brushing
A. Surfaces to brush B. Thoroughness

Personal improvement

(see following pages)

10 Minutes

Disclosing tablets Toothbrush

Mirror
Sink
Water
Tooth model

(if needed)

IV. Flossing necessity Personal 5 Minutes Floss improvement

(see following pages)

V. Evaluation Recall 10 Minutes None (see following

pages)

Lesson Extension Allow students to color the worksheet (II. Smart Snacks for Me)

Alternative Plan B Bulletin board Healthy Snacks (see following

pages)

20 Minutes

Magazines Glue Scissors

Developmental Section

page233image18877824

Summary of Discussion Questions

Culmination

Chapter 5 Presentation and Unit Plan Development 209 Lecture/Discussion

  • What are some of your favorite types of snacks?
  • How long does it take for bacteria in plaque to make acid on my teeth?
  • If I wanted to have something to drink, should I have a cola or a glass ofwater? Why?Educational game, display

• Are most of your pictures falling into the sugary or non-sugary category? Why do you suppose this is happening?

Experiment

• What favorite healthy snack should I eat to help me have strong, healthy teeth?

Personal improvement/experiment

  • Suppose you had a toothbrush in your hand; can you show me the direc- tion you would brush your teeth to make sure you were getting the plaque off? Show me.
  • Why do I need to brush that way?Culmination
  • Can someone tell me a healthy snack I should eat to help my teeth be strong?
  • If your friend tells you flossing is not important, what would your say to convince your friend it is very important?Today we learned that when we eat sugary snacks, it only takes about 20 minutes for bacteria in plaque to make acid, which causes cavities. We learned about healthy snacks that are helpful to our teeth.Question: Can someone tell me a healthy snack I should eat to help my teeth be strong?We also practiced brushing and flossing properly.Question: If your friend tells you flossing is not important, what would your say to convince your friend it is very important?On Thursday, we will be learning about the basic food groups and proper proportions.Problems:
  • Some students may have food allergies; check before allowing students to taste food items.
  • Students may be reluctant to try the disclosing tablet—allow these chil- dren to practice brushing on the tooth model.

page234image19048192 page234image19053376

Anticipated Problems

page234image19050112

210 Lesson Plan Example
Lesson Extension: Allow students to color the worksheet (II. Smart

Snacks for Me).

Plan B: Have students make a collage of healthy snack foods. Construct a “Smart Snacks for Me” poster or bulletin board display with pictures of no- sugar-added snack foods.

By the end of class, the students will have met the outlined objectives and be assessed via observation and questioning. The instructor will review and assess the worksheet Smart Snacks for Me, the collage, and the students’ brushing/flossing techniques.

I. Sugar

Method/Strategy (Lecture, Discussion)

Discussion question: What are some of your favorite types of snacks?
A. Many common snack foods contain sugar. Show pictures of exam- ples; include cake, candy, pie, sweet rolls, ice cream, cookies, doughnuts, sugared chewing gum, sugar-containing soft drinks, chocolate milk, and

sugar-containing gelatin desserts.
B. Bacteria in plaque make acid when sugar is in the mouth. Each time

food containing sugar is eaten, the bacteria continue to make acid (for about 20 minutes). Bacteria eat the surface of the tooth and leave holes in your teeth, called cavities.
Discussion questions:

1. If I wanted to have something to drink, should I have a cola or a glass of water? Why?

2. How long does it take for bacteria in plaque to make acid on my teeth?

C. When you eat sugary foods, you increase your chances of letting bac- teria attack your teeth. This is why it is important to choose healthy foods that will not damage your teeth.

Method/Strategy (Educational Game, Display)

Give students magazines containing food items. Have students cut out pic- tures and separate them into food categories, sugary and non-sugary. Give each student two sheets of construction paper and label one sugary and the other non-sugary. Let the students glue their pictures on the appropriate page.

Discussion question: Are most of your pictures falling into the sugary or non-sugary category? Why do you suppose this is happening?

Method/Strategy (Experiment)

Discuss that snack foods need to be nutritious and do not have to be sugary to be good.

Evaluation

page235image18913088

Supplemental Material to Support the Developmental Section

page235image18923072

Chapter 5 Presentation and Unit Plan Development 211

Have a tasting party. Blindfold students and have them eat small pieces of healthy snack foods and have them guess what it is according to taste, tex- ture, and smell. Then have them rate the food as sugary or non-sugary. Em- phasize that although fruits have sugar, they are a healthier choice when you want a sugary snack.

Discussion question: What favorite healthy snack should I eat to help me have strong, healthy teeth? Note: Some foods might include oranges, tan- gerines, apples, celery, carrots, cheese crackers, popcorn, pretzels, etc.

II. Snack Considerations

If an individual must snack, there are many nutritious non-sugary snack foods. They include meat, nuts, cheese, fresh fruits and vegetables, unsweet- ened fruit juices, sugarless soft drinks, milk, plain yogurt, hard-boiled eggs, popcorn, and pretzels.

Method/Strategy (Discussion, Puzzle)

Pass out the worksheet “Smart Snacks for Me” and have the students indi- cate those foods containing and not containing added sugar.

This section should take approximately 15 minutes. The material needed is the Smart Snacks for Me worksheet. Extend the lesson by allowing stu- dents to color, if necessary and time permits.

III. Brushing

Method (Instruction/Lecture)

Tooth brushing will remove plaque from the outer, inner, and chewing sur- faces of the teeth. It is probable that the thoroughness with which one brushes is more important than the specific technique used. Use of tooth- paste is not required for classroom plaque removal. However, use of a tooth- paste containing fluoride is recommended for brushing at home.

Note: Some students may have been taught other cleaning methods by their dentists or dental hygienist. They should continue to follow the in- structions they have been given.

Method/Strategy (Personal Improvement/Experiment) Discussion questions:

1. Suppose you had a toothbrush in your hand; can you show me the direc- tion you would brush your teeth to make sure you were getting the plaque off?

2. Why do I need to brush that way?

212 Lesson Plan Example

Remind students of proper brushing techniques discussed in Week #1/ Thursday (see notes).

Have a volunteer student or two demonstrate the correct brush position on the model.

Disclosing Tablets Experiment—explain how the disclosing tablets work and how to properly use them (see instructions on the package).

Practice: Now allow all students to brush their teeth with partners. After the students are finished brushing, have them disclose and see the areas they missed. Partners will check to make sure the plaque has been removed from the teeth after brushing. Allow them to go back and brush again until the re- maining disclosing dye is gone.

This section is approximately 10 minutes. Materials needed include dis- closing tablets, toothbrush, mirror, sink, and water.

IV. Flossing

Method (Instruction/Lecture)

Flossing is necessary to remove plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line. It is important to clean these areas thoroughly because dental cavities and periodontal disease often start in these areas where the tooth- brush frequently does not reach.

Note: A method of holding floss, which may be easier for children, is to tie a knot in the ends of 12 to 14 inches of floss to form a circle. Hold with the third, fourth, and fifth fingers of each hand. Use thumbs and forefingers to guide the floss.

Method/Strategy (Personal Improvement)

Now allow the children to practice flossing by distributing floss to each student. Instruct the children to pretend that their partner’s fingers are their teeth. Have the partner hold out his or her hand with fingers close together, representing the way your teeth are close together in your mouth. Have students floss between the fingers of their partner’s hand, practicing the flossing guideline discussed Week #1/Thursday (starting with the backside of the back tooth and working around the arch in a reg- ular pattern—see notes). Each child should have a turn practicing the flossing technique.

Note: For first-grade students, teachers should obtain the assistance of lo- cal dental professionals or parents when attempting in-class flossing.

After the students are finished flossing, have them disclose and see the ar- eas they missed. Allow them to go back and floss again until the remaining disclosing dye is gone.

This section will take approximately 8 to 12 minutes. Materials needed include floss, mirror, sink, and water.

Chapter 5 Presentation and Unit Plan Development 213 V. Evaluation

Each objective will be assessed according to the following technique:

Objective

Technique of Assessment

Cognitive: By the end of the lesson, first-grade student will identify healthy snack foods by circling ap- propriate choices on the worksheet with 90% accuracy.

Instructor will grade the work- sheet.

Psychomotor: The participant will create a food collage to classify multiple examples of healthy food choices discussed in the lecture as high in sugar or not high in sugar.

Psychomotor: By the end of the ses- sion, first-grade student will dem- onstrate plaque removal on tooth surfaces, to his or her partner, by removing the disclosing tablet stains using the method of brush- ing described.

Instructor will review the collages to ensure that foods are placed in the correct category.

Instructor will observe the student activity and interaction between partners to ensure participants are properly brushing.

Affective: Following the discussion on healthy snacks, the learner will verbally justify which of the three foods he or she believes would be the best choice to promote dental health.

Instructor will randomly call upon participants to check for under- standing.

A copy of the worksheet Smart Snacks for Me would also be found with the supplemental materials that support the developmental section. The thoroughness of this lesson plan enables any person to execute it with fi- delity. If another educator can basically follow your plan and present the material as you would, you have a well-developed plan.

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