Ebp2

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EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE


DNP Project Template

(25 points)

Directions: Outline the essential elements needed to begin designing a clinical scholarship project. Complete the following items on the word document (.docx) provided in the module (download the document, complete it, then upload into the assignment area). Or, copy and paste the assignment (below) into your own word document (.docx), then upload it into the assignment area. DO NOT ALTER THIS DOCUMENT (a 5-point deduction will occur)

Name (-1 point if missing):

Academic Program & Population of Focus (-1 point if missing; e.g., BSN-DNP, Pediatric Primary Care):


INTRODUCTION

Problem or Issue (2 points)

Background/Significance (3 points) (minimum of 3 bullet points [max. 5] citing evidence from credible sources in APA to establish the significance of the problem or issue)

Purpose of the Project (2 points)

Overall AIM (Goal) (2 points) (Should be SMART)

Outcome Measures (5 points) (i.e., should include primary and secondary outcome measures of interest [data to be collected])

Study Question(s) (3 points)

· PICO(T) format (e.g., Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019, Appendix A, pp. 706-7)

EBP Framework (3 points) (Identify the EBP framework to guide the project and 1-3 sentences explaining why this was selected)


PROCEDURE

Key Stakeholders (2 points) (i.e., who are the individuals with a vested interest in the project?)

Process Plan (3 points). (i.e., outline the plan for convening the team of stakeholders and developing the project with them)

Integration of Evidence Into Practice

          In scientific or clinical research there are various methods applied to answer a question, usually through the use of quantitative and qualitative research.  Researchers use a qualitative research approach when applying a systematic investigation of a social phenomenon involving human behavior and interaction. This method is best used when answering discovery-oriented research questions and can be helpful in understanding the behavior exhibited about a phenomenon.  When the research interest is on the prevalence of a problem, factors related to it, possible causal pathways, or approaches to control and/or prevent the problem, then it is appropriate to employ quantitative research to address the question of concern. The integration (translation) of the evidence from paper into practice requires a deliberate approach often through the use of qualitative and quantitative research being applied to one’s own practice or through the practice of others.                                                                                                                                                            

          This module is a beginning exercise in designing and conducting translational research through the development of a doctor of nursing practice clinical scholarship project. Additionally, this module will expose the novice nurse researcher to the methods of translation (White, Dudley-Brown, & Terhaar, 2021, pp. 175-191).  The clinical scholarship project is necessary to establish a complimentary language and process for application of the evidence into real-life settings without controlling for variables (White et al., 2021). The focus of this course module is to begin mapping the plan for translating evidence into practice through the clinical scholarship project.  

Module Objectives

 At the end of this learning module, the student will be able to:

· Analyze the integration of clinical expertise, patient assessment, and patient preferences and values when making decisions based on the external evidence.

· Discuss at least three methods for translating evidence into practice.

· Synthesize the role of outcomes in enhancing and evaluating practice change.

· Examine various methods and models to guide the implementation and sustainability for evidence-based practice.

· Construct a template for a clinical scholarship project.

Here is my topic/clinical issue or problem: Breaking the stigma associated with depression and improving access to care among women in Takoradi Ghana

GHANA

CORPORATION NAME: The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation (TAHEF)
Incorporated.

MAKING A DIFFERENCE
(Serving the underserved and at-risk TO ACHIEVE A Healthier life!)

The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation is a Ghanaian nonprofit registered charitable organization founded in the United States with the aim of assisting individuals, communities, and the public with their health needs through education, awareness, and medical services.

REGISTERED AGENT: Dr. Faustina Hayford Blankson

BUSINESS ADDRESS: #9 Acquah Harrison Ln.
Kweikuma Ridge, Sekondi
P. O. Box 533. Sekondi, Ghana

PURPOSE: The purpose of The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation is to provide education and awareness of health and health issues to individuals, community, and the public. The aim is to provide them with measures to adopt to live a healthier lifestyle in order for them to reach optimal health. This non-profit organization will also provide training to individuals and organization that provide health education.

PRESIDENT: Dr. Faustina Hayford Blankson

Mission

Our mission to serve the underserved and at risk through health education, creating awareness of unhealthy behaviors and other health issues, promoting positive lifestyles, ensuring a healthy environment, and providing needed/necessary support to assist them reach optimal health.

Vision

Our vision is to empower individuals to take charge of their health in order to improve their overall health and achieve the highest quality of life.


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation (TAHEF) is a nonprofit organization designed to improve the health of individuals, families, communities, and the public through health education for them to reach optimal health.

In our attempt to improve the health of the people we serve, the Foundation will provide education on health issues, the immediate and long-term benefits of good health, provide resources such as brochures, pamphlets, and other materials. The Foundation aspires:

· To equip people with the knowledge and skills to prevent diseases and illnesses in order for them to reach optimal health.

· To empower people to take charge of their health and make better and more informed health/healthcare choices or decisions.

· To create awareness of unhealthy behaviors and other health issues.

To achieve this aim, the Foundation will seek grants as well as perform fundraising activities.

Immediate Goals

1. Educate individuals, communities, and public on personal health.

2. Create awareness of health issues.

3. Develop and implement intervention strategies to address health issues

4. Empower women, men, and girls to make responsible health choices.

5. Partner with other organizations with similar focus.

6. Assist the elderly to improve their quality of life

7. Train the trainers

Intermediate Goal

8. Provide clinical support for women and adolescents

Long-Term Goal (s)

9. To have a Mobile Clinic

Core Values

We embody the following values:

· Integrity and ethics: Making sure that we do everything right and in an honest and fair manner to everyone.

· Respect: Respecting all clients, volunteers, and employees. Not discriminating based on
anything but respecting each person’s rights and as a unique individual.

· Empowerment: To be able to educate people in a way that promotes, maintains, and improves individual, community, and public health. It is important for us to give priority to efforts that respect the individual’s freedom of choice and self-determination. It is also important for us to empower individuals to take charge of their own health and communicate potential outcomes to those affected by our intervention.

· Excellence: Every staff member and volunteers will receive training. We will set small as well as large goals that are specific, attainable, realistic and timely.

· Good Stewardship: We will utilize every resource as it is intended. The Enrichment Foundation has the obligation to set standards for financial procedures and
internal control.

· Community: We will utilize available resources in the community. We will partner with
other organizations and institution such as Mercy Foundation Incorporated, Life Relief
Foundation, Jemima Crentsil hospital and schools in delivering our services.


HISTORY/ABOUT THE FOUNDER

As a woman from a developing country, Ghana, I have developed a personal interest and motivation for investigating the health issues facing women and other individuals of low-income status in developing countries. Growing up in Ghana, I was exposed to the seriousness of the health issues many women face. Perhaps, the most disturbing to me at the time was the fact that many women around me were dying from preventable diseases and pregnancy-related complications. This early exposure aroused my curiosity about the problem. Unfortunately, I also learned that many of the poor women do not utilize available health care services but rely instead on traditional health care providers, herbalists and native doctors. The focus of this study is to find out how the experiences of the women have been regarding their use of health care services. This brings to mind my memory of a woman I saw being interviewed on television when I visited Ghana in 2006. The woman had breast cancer and had been seeing a traditional health practitioner instead of seeking medical treatment. Consequently, her breast cancer had reached an incurable stage. I later learned that she died.

Also, my grand aunt who died at aged 96 never sought the assistance of any health professional including physicians. She even warned everyone not to take her to the hospital whenever she was sick. Since I did not have any good understanding of the importance of health at that time I never bothered to ask her why. Recently, I asked my mother and she said she does not know why my grand aunt never wanted to seek the help of any health professional. According to my mother all she would say is “I will die the very moment anyone takes me to a health care professional.” Even when she died she was not taken to the morgue. The family adhered to her will and embalmed her at home and kept her there until she was buried.

Over the years, and as I became more educated in health intervention and promotion, I realized that women in developing countries could achieve better health if the reasons for their poor state of health is understood and the appropriate and necessary measures are taken to address them. With this understanding, I have cultivated a strong passion for investigating the reasons or factors that contribute to the poor health of women, particularly those in low-income status in developing countries.

My views on health are shaped by my experiences including my Christian beliefs, which are anchored in love, selfless giving, and care for one another. I strongly believe that life is precious and that we have all been created to fulfill our life purposes. For me as a health educator, this means helping to improve the health of individuals, communities, and the public, especially those in the developing world. As a woman from a society where most women and children do not have access to proper health care and have little or no knowledge of how to live a healthy life, I believe that helping to provide enrichment in their lives would be a great blessing. I have been fortunate to have an education that allows me to assist women and children with their health needs and, ultimately, contribute towards building a healthy global community. I believe my research interest is rooted in my desire to help reduce the barriers to health care access or issues facing the women, and, ultimately, improve their health status. Making a difference in people’s life is what I strive to accomplish every day. I consider being able to assist people in improving their health a privilege. Thus, The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation Incorporated will assist in making this difference in peoples’ life.


DESCRIPTION

The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation Incorporated is to provide education and awareness of health and health issues to individuals, communities, the public, in the Western Region of Ghana, specifically Sekondi/Takoradi Metropolitan district and provide them with measure to adopt to live a healthier lifestyle in order to reach optimal health. The individuals will be provided with the skills and knowledge they can employ to live a healthier life. The Foundation will also provide training for individuals and organization that provide health education. This will ensure the wellbeing and safety of people in the community, the staff, and volunteers. To achieve its goal, the Foundation will investigate ways to harness individual and the community’s strengths for coping with health issues. Through efficient presentations by the founder, volunteers, and trained community leaders, the Foundation will educate, promote awareness, and provide the necessary skills to reduce the uncertainties and incidents caused by health issues that can be prevented, as well as delaying the onset of the ones that cannot be prevented.

· Specifically, The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation will focus on educating community leaders on the steps individuals and families in the communities should take to live healthfully. Family is important because it is the corner stone of every community.

· It will also introduce participants to different coping strategies before, during, and after they have faced an illness or disease, and also educate them on the different types of resources and support available to them from the government and non-governmental organizations in their communities.

· All programs will be presented in a culturally appropriate manner in order to ensure understanding and participation.

Health educational programs provided by The Ayensua B Enrichment Foundation will allow individuals and communities to become knowledgeable of the importance in choosing to live a healthier life. This will become aware of their personal choices that influence their life expectancy, and the long-term benefits of their health to them and others. Other health education providers and community leaders will be able to provide step-by-step directions on how to live healthfully to individuals, families and the communities they serve. Head of households will be expected to involve their members in all the planning and implementation of health programs in their communities. They will also be expected to educate their families and communities about the kinds of support and resources available to them for health relief. By using a participatory and culturally sensitive approach, the Foundation will provide social connectedness for resource exchange, cohesion, and response. Thus, the overarching goal of the Foundation is to promote self-confidence, self-efficacy, and economic well-being of individuals, communities, and the public. Doing this will assist in reducing medical needs as well as the burden of disease and cost to the communities and the nation in general.



MARKET ANALYSIS AND PRIORITIES

The health care system in Ghana has been changing since the country gained its independence from Britain in 1957. Immediately after independence, the new Ghana government embarked on a program to provide all Ghanaians with free medical services. However, decades of difficult economic challenges especially in the 1980s brought about “deteriorating health infrastructure and massive emigration of health professionals” to developed countries (Mensah, Oppong & Schmidt, 2009, p.4). This forced the Ghana government to abolish the free medical service program and replace it with “a cost recovery scheme (or cash-and-carry system) as part of an International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank-sponsored Structural Adjustment Programs” (Mensah et al., 2009, p. 4). This cash-and-carry system also known as the Revolving Drug Fund was established in Ghana in 1992 (Gajate-Garrido & Owusua, 2013). Unfortunately, the IMF-mandated policy resulted in the decline of several health care indicators, including access and utilization of health services. This was mainly because the “high cost of medical treatments caused many low-income households to postpone their treatments or resort to self-treatment and other unregulated healers” (Oppong, 2001, p. 359).

In 2003, the Ghana government introduced a new National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to replace the cash-and-carry system. The primary goal of NHIS was to help make health care affordable and improve access and health outcomes for all Ghanaians (Mensah et al., 2009). Unfortunately, the NHIS’s goal of improving the health of average poor Ghanaians has not been realized despite the increase in the number of Ghanaians insured under the program. According to Universal Access to Health Care Campaign (2013), only 9 million out of 24 million people in Ghana have health coverage under the NHIS even though all Ghanaians contribute to its funding through the Value-Added Tax levy on purchases of goods and service. Despite efforts to improve access to health care services in Ghana, the overall health of Ghanaians has not improved.

The Sekondi/Takoradi metropolitan area is in need of health education. A study conducted by Blankson (2016) indicated that many people are unaware of certain health issues and even do not know how to live healthier lifestyles. The study asserts that having the knowledge and thorough understanding of a health issue enables one to solve it. Some of the information from the study showed that health education is what is lacking in the metropolitan area. The outcome of the study indicated that people receive some health education from television and radio. However, those who do not have these electronics do not receive the health education needed. As such it is imperative to make the effort to educate people on basic health issues. The Foundation will educate individuals, community, and the public on prevention of health issues and how to live healthier lives. According to Donatelle (2012), one will need to satisfy all the dimensions of health (physical, social, emotional, spiritual, intellectual, environmental, and occupational) for that individual to reach optimal health since the dimensions intertwine with each other. Also, it is important to have the awareness of how different level of influences such as individual health behaviors, poverty, health policy, access to quality healthcare, education, biology and genetics, and the built environment (pollutants and infections) affect ones’ wellbeing.

Implementing such a programs will not be without challenges or barriers. These include lack training resources, time, and money. However, the programs will reduce these barriers by seeking financial support from Foundations and participation from other organizations and developing appropriate educational sessions that would be implemented in the communities.

PROGRAM SETTING

Corporate office of The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation will be at Kweikuma, in the Sekondi area. Other offices will be available within the Sekondi/Takoradi Metropolis as well as other countries in Africa as the organization progresses. The aim is to improve participants’ knowledge of the importance of the personal health choices that contribute to the burden of disease and equip them with the skills they need for health promotion and prevention of diseases for them to reach optimal health. The leaders will be organizational heads, church leaders, and other associational leaders and members such as teachers. The health education programs will be accomplished by using effective delivery methods for promoting awareness, through active participation of participants in the process, and provision of skills to the participants. The Foundation will also provide the participants with information (in brochure format) and other resources in the Metropolis.

Kweikuma is situated in the Sekondi area of the western region. The main cities in the area are Sekondi and Takoradi. The Sekondi Takoradi metropolitan area currently has a population of 445,205 people. Males represent 48.9% of the population while females represent 51.1%. This is followed by the youth who make up 32.6% and the elderly are 6.1% of the population. Over 90% of the metropolis is urban. The education data indicates that the residents with——. The literacy data also shows that 89.5% of the population who are 11 years and above are literate but 10.5% are not. The gender literacy shows that males are much more literate-94% than females-85.1% (Ghana statistical service, 2010). Materials and modules for educating on health will be tailored to the education standards or levels of the participants. All information will be presented in a culturally appropriate manner in order to ensure participants comfort.

TARGET POPULATION

All programs for The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation is designed to target residents of the Sekondi/Takoradi communities. The Foundation will target community members and leaders who are visible to the public and are prepared to assist in reaching schools, churches, and other establishments. The leaders will be organizational heads, church leaders, and other associational leaders and members such as parent teacher associations. Volunteers and staff will be trained on how to deliver information on different health issues by the founder who is a health educator by profession. Each week, volunteers and staff will be in the schools and communities providing education on those health issues. Through the implementation of the programs, The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation hopes to meet the needs of individuals and the communities they serve.

WORK

1. Educate individuals, communities, and public on personal health.

a. Educational presentations.

b. Provide resources—brochures and pamphlets

c. Outreaches

d. Mentoring for the future generation

2. Create awareness of health issues.

a. Educational presentations on health literacy

b. Educational presentations on preventable and non-preventable diseases

c. Health communication

d. Plan and implement health fairs and teen summits

i. In the schools

ii. In the communities

iii. Work places

3. Develop and implement intervention strategies to address health issues

a. Plan different health strategies to address health issues from target population.

4. Empower women, men, and girls to make responsible health choices.

a. Focus group discussions

b. Education on selected health topics including mental health issues

c. Knowledge on health issues that are normal and ones that are not normal.

d. Provide resources—brochure and pamphlets

e. Hold teen summits

i. Discuss health issues

ii. Address non-healthy behaviors

iii. Discuss sexual health

iv. Discuss healthy and unhealthy relationships

v. Discuss how to communicate effectively and efficiently

vi. Panel of wise women to deliver wisdom to adolescents ages 12-18

1. Adolescents will provide necessary topics for discussions

5. To partner with other organizations with similar focus.

a. Organize workshops

b. Awareness campaign on prevention and curative of different health issues.

c. Raise awareness of the importance of the determinants of health

6. To assist the elderly with quality of life

a. Adult daycare

i. Meet and chat with other adults

ii. Engage in fun games

iii. Go for walks

iv. Go on fun excursions

7. Training the trainers

a. Educate nurses, doctors, health ministers, primary health care givers, traditional healers, women:

b. Health Educators: Educate women on the importance of making their health a priority in their lives;

c. It is important to visit clinics as well, not just traditional medicine sites.

d. Work with traditional healers (Herbalists) and educate and encourage them to get their patients to seek medical help as well as theirs. This way the traditional healers will not feel threatened.

e. Educate health professionals on the importance of women’s health as well as reception given to the women.

8. Provide clinical support for women and adolescents

a. Blood pressure monitoring

b. Blood sugar monitoring

c. Well woman check

d. Menstrual disorders

9. Mobile Clinic: Taking the medical service to the rural areas

a. That will provide primary care to those in the villages

b. Set up pseudo-clinics to cater to the health needs of people in rural communities, at least once a week.

c. Train medical and health workers in the delivery of health in rural areas and stress on regular health check-ups.

d. The mobile clinics will either be in the cities or villages where the people can access medical help.

SCOPE AND SEQUENCE CHART

Intervention

Concept

Learning Strategies

Health brochures and pamphlets

Increased knowledge of health issues that can be prevented and ones that cannot be prevented

Take charge of their health

Build awareness of the health education programs and the importance.

Awareness of how to take care of your own health

Health education PowerPoint presentations

Increased knowledge of what health is and what will happen if the we do not take our health seriously

Ability to absorb/resist a preventable disease

Provide information on the different health topics.

The means to survive a health issue

Provide information on how to maintain a stable equilibrium of the dimensions of health and wellness

Demonstration of breast and testicular exams

Procedures: Gain knowledge of taking action

Gain skills and protection from these types of cancers and ability to know when to visit a physician

Provide ideas on how to detect a lump and recover.

Role play on different scenarios by participants: Participatory learning

Videos

Awareness

Provide information on individuals who have faced some health difficulties and have come out strong

Health fairs and workshops

Gain knowledge and skills of different health issues

Participatory learning: Guiding behavior in taking appropriate action to reduce their vulnerability to a health issue

Implementation of the program in the communities and schools

Increased knowledge of individuals, families, and community on health issues

Gain skills on becoming dealing with preventable and non-preventable diseases

Gain knowledge on individual, family, organizations, community responsibilities.

Provide information and knowledge gained from the training and presentations to community members.

Provide step-by-step process of living a healthier life

Quality of life for the elderly

Social support

Physical activities

Learn the importance of social support for the elderly. Benefits of physical activity and old age.

Teen Summits

Awareness and knowledge of all the dimensions of health and wellness.

Know the functions of the female anatomy and how to take good care of our body.

Be aware of what constitutes good health and what does not. Including sexually transmitted infections.

10.


OPERATIONS

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

The Foundation will utilize different modules in delivering their program. Each program will have four modules:

Module One: Recruitment. This deals with recruiting influential individuals with different expertise, different backgrounds, and from different social groups/network who may have a shared interest in building a healthy community. It is important that culturally competent individuals are recruited. A Community Health Advocacy Group will be formed from the selected individuals. The members will receive a step by step training on different health issues faced by majority of the people in the community every month.

Module Two: Awareness and Education plus all work. Trained volunteers and staff will provide awareness and education to the advocacy group. The main focus will be on what health is the importance of community’s resilience to diseases, and the six pillars of health (healthy eating, active living, restorative sleep, awareness and reduction of stress, social support, and finding passion and purpose).

Module Three: Implementation of Programs. The advocacy team and the trained volunteers and staff will take the skills and knowledge gained from the training to the communities. They will also transfer the knowledge and skills to other community members.

Module Four: Evaluation/Assessment. The final module will focus on program evaluation or assessment. Four different types evaluations/assessment will be conducted for the Community the programs. They are 1) process evaluation, 2) short-term assessment, 3) intermediate assessment, and 4) long-term assessment. Conducting these assessments will shed light on whether the programs were effective or not and whether adjustments must be made during the implementation or the process phase.

MARKETING PLAN

The purpose of The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation Incorporated is to provide education and awareness of health and health issues to individuals, community, the public, and provide them with measure to adopt to live a healthier lifestyle in order to reach optimal health. The Foundation will also provide training to individuals and organization that provide health education. As already stated, building community resilience to health issues is very important because a community that is resilient is able to know and deal with health issues better than one that is not. This Foundation again will prepare leaders and individuals in the community on building resiliency to health issues through education and training. In order to become resilient, the Foundation will ensure that individuals in the communities are knowledgeable on the health issues they face and are equipped with the skills to deal with them.

Marketing Mix

Product: The product for this Foundation is improve people’s life by educating them on how to live a healthier lifestyle. The products provide information on the goals, purpose and the key components of each program for the Foundation. It addresses questions such as – what is health, why do we need to live healthier, what would happen if do not receive education and awareness of health issues, what would happen if individuals do not know how to prevent diseases and illnesses, and consequences of lack of effective response to diseases and illnesses. It will also have the trainees actively participate in the process by demonstrating the 6 pillars of health, which are: 1) healthy eating, 2) active living, 3) restorative sleep, 4) awareness and reduction of stress, 5) social support, and 6) finding passion and purpose. First, a PowerPoint presentation on the six pillars will be discussed. Participants will take turns so each one will be able to demonstrate these six pillars. Participants will also watch videos of individuals who have built resilience to health issues.

Place: Corporate office of The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation will be at Kweikuma, in the Sekondi area. Other offices will be available within the Sekondi/Takoradi Metropolis as well as other countries in Africa as the organization progresses. The aim is to improve participants’ knowledge of the importance of the personal health choices that contribute to the burden of disease and equip them with the skills they need for health promotion and prevention of diseases in order for them to reach optimal health.

The leaders for the programs will be organizational heads, church leaders, and other associational leaders and members such as teachers. The health education programs will be accomplished by using effective delivery methods for promoting awareness, active participation of participants in the process, and provision of skills to the participants. The Foundation will also provide the participants with information (in brochure format) and other resources in Metropolis.

All the Foundation’s programs will be implemented in the metropolis. Some will be implemented in the grade, middle, and high schools. Other programs will be held at churches as well as community centers. Before each program, Dr. Blankson or an assigned member of the Foundation will arrange the place and inform participants one week prior to the session.

Price: There will be no fee to participate in the training programs because of its volunteer approach. The community leaders (advocacy group) will receive free training from the Foundation staff and other experts. Although all the programs are free, the participants will sacrifice their time for the benefit of their families and communities. This could be time they will have to take from work, get a baby sitter, and the energy to withstand the training. To entice the advocacy group and the communities, each participant and family in the metropolis will receive a health book as an incentive for participating. Other incentives may be provided when necessary.

Promotion: Before each program and training, community members, school heads, and organizational heads will be contacted by way of letters from the Foundation. Also, public service announcements will be made on local radio and television stations to inform the communities of the program (s) and how they can be involved. Brochures and flyers about the programs will be placed at strategic locations such as stores, work places, churches, hospitals, and other offices in the community. These will be the avenues to promote and communicate the messages of the programs to the target population.

EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

Equipment and supplies such as a big screen television, a PowerPoint accessible computer, a projector, and a computer with internet access will be needed. Tables and chairs will be needed as well as notepads and pens/pencils for the participants. Copies of the PowerPoint presentation will be organized in binders and made available to the leaders. Postal and mailing supplies will be needed to send letters to individuals and community heads in the communities. Copies of brochures will be printed for participants and community members. The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation and other organizations who may volunteer to assist in the delivery of the programs needed may provide the supplies and equipment.


MANAGEMENT AND PERSONNEL

The effectiveness of any organization depends to a large extent on the personnel used. To make The Ayensua B Health Enrichment Foundation’s programs come to fruition, internal and external personnel will be used. The internal personnel will be Dr. Faustina Hayford Blankson, a Health Educator by profession. Her main role will be to provide direction and oversight. She will be responsible for recruiting people to form the Community Advocacy Group. She is also the person to promote the program with the assistance of other experts that she will recruit throughout the metropolitan area.

The external personnel will consist of individuals in the community who have expertise (subject matter experts) in health education and also individuals who speak different languages other than English. Dr. Faustina Hayford Blankson is the person who will be recruiting these individuals by contacting and forming partnerships with the different organizations in the community. Dr. Blankson will send formal letters to identified individuals to inform them of the Foundation’s purpose and ask for their participation. The letters will appeal to their self-interest to motivate them to participate in the Foundation’s programs. She will recruit other external personnel, mostly volunteers. The volunteers will be recruited from churches and organizations in the community. Dr. Faustina Hayford Blankson and other subject matter experts will provide the training to the participants.

Resources

Number of paid staff = 7 (projects coordinator, accountant, projects assistants
(2), and field staff (3)

Number of volunteers = 10

Number of Board Members = 5

Board Meetings = 6 times annually


FUNDS AND RESOURCES REQUIRED AND EXPECTED USE OF THE FUNDS

The Foundation will seek funding from the sources indicated below to assist in the day-to-day operations:

· Foundation’s contribution

· Write grant proposals

· Fund raising

· Individual and organizational contributions

· Government contribution

REVENUE AND EXPENSE BUDGET

REVENUE

CASH REQUIRED

IN-KIND CONTRIBUTIONS

TOTAL BUDGET

· Foundation

· Fundraising

· Grants

· Individual contributions

· Volunteer services

Total Revenue

$30,000.00

EXPENSES

Personnel-Salaries

· Project coordinator

· Accountant

· Project Assistants (2)

· Field staff (2)

Resources

· Office rent

· Supplies

· Printing

· Utilities

· Telephone

· Postage

· Loud speaker

· Travel

· Big screen Television

· Projector

· Computers (8)

· Internet Access

· Membership dues

· Incentives for programs

Other Resources

· Mobile clinics

Total Resources:

References

Blankson, F. H. (2017). The use of health services in Ghana: experiences and perspectives of Ghanaian women. Dissertation.

Donatelle, J. R. (2012). Health: The basic. (10th edition). Pearson.

Ghana statistical service. (2010). Population and housing census. Retrieved from: http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/2010_District_Report/Western/STMA.pdf

28

Literature Search
(25 points)

Directions: Identify a clinical issue or problem. Develop a study question to answer the question. Perform a literature search (consider working with a librarian on this). Complete the following items on the word document (.docx) provided in the module (download the document, complete it, then upload into the assignment area). Or, copy and paste the assignment (below) into your own word document (.docx), then upload it into the assignment area. DO NOT ALTER THIS DOCUMENT (a 5-point deduction will occur)

Name:

Academic Program & Population of Focus (-1 point if missing, e.g., BSN-DNP, Pediatric Primary Care):

Clinical Issue or Problem (3 points) (e.g., there is a high number of pediatric needlesticks in an Emergency Department)

There is an increased number of hospitals acquired infections in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Problem Statement (3 points) (e.g., the average number of needlesticks for children in an Emergency Department is 2.2 needlesticks per visit [author & author, 2019])

The rate of infections among the hospitalized patients in an intensive care unit increased from 4.6% to 9.3% in the past few months (Haque et al., 2018).

Study Question (5 points)

· PICO(T) format (e.g., Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019, Appendix A, pp. 706-7)

P (Patient/problem) – Healthcare professionals, Patients, Hospital acquired infection

I – (intervention) – hand hygiene/hand washing using soap and water

C – (Comparison) – hand rubs

O – (outcome) – reduced infection rate

(T) – (time) – Hospitalization period.

Does hand washing using soap and water compared to hand rubs reduce hospital acquired infections in an intensive care unit during the hospitalization period.

Key Search Terms (5 points) (include Boolean operators)

Hand washing AND hospital acquired infections OR health care associated infections OR nosocomial infections

Search Engines Used (5 points) (e.g., PubMed, CINAHL, etc.)

CINAHL Plus with Full Text

Cochrane Library

PubMed

Medline

Number of Initial Publications Generated (1 point) (matching the search terms and phrases)

14,100

Refined Search: Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria (2 points)

Inclusion:

· Full Text

· Published within the last five years

· Peer Reviewed Scholarly Journals

· Academic Journals

Exclusion.

· Any publication before 2017

· Journals with only abstracts

· Books

Number of Publications Generated and Number Selected the Literature Review (1 point)

2,649 publications

References

Haque, M., Sartelli, M., McKimm, J., & Abu Bakar, M. (2018). Health care-associated infections – an overview. Infection and drug resistance, 11, 2321–2333. https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S177247

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